Unidad de Investigación en Emergencia y Desastre (UIED)

20 de marzo de 2018
Erasmus Mundus Master in Public Health in Disasters


Unidad de Investigación en Emergencia y Desastre (UIED)

Desastres activos

Madagascar: Tropical Storm Eliakim - Mar 2018

GLIDE number: TC-2018-000023-MDG
Disaster type: Tropical Cyclone
Affected countries: Madagascar

Severe Tropical Storm Eliakim made landfall in the Masoala Peninsula on 16 March at 10 a.m. local time. The weather system is expected to make a second landfall in the district of Mananara Nord in the afternoon of 16 March. Eliakim is expected to bring intense rainfall, which could trigger widespread and lifethreatening flooding and mudslides in the coming days. Locations on high alert (red) for major flooding include the SAVA, Analanjirofo, Sofia and Alaotra Mangoro regions. Evacuations are ongoing in areas expected to be hardest hit. (OCHA, 16 Mar 2018)

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Date: 16 Mar 2018
Status: Alert

Papua New Guinea: Papua New Guinea: Earthquakes - Feb 2018

GLIDE number: EQ-2018-000020-PNG
Disaster type: Earthquake, Land Slide
Affected countries: Papua New Guinea

A 7.5 magnitude earthquake struck on 26 February (25 February UTC), with its epicentre in Nipa-Kutubu district, Southern Highlands province. The affected area is sparsely populated, with a dispersed population living in remote, rural communities. There are no major urban areas in the immediate vicinity although there is a gas pipeline in the area. There were some minor landslides following the earthquake, but as of 26 February no damage to infrastructure or homes has been reported. (OCHA, 26 Feb 2018)

At 15.17 UTC on 26 February 2018, a major aftershock with a magnitude of 6.2 M occurred in the Southern Highlands province close to the location of the 7.5 M earthquake of 25 February. According to media, as of 27 February, at least 30 people have been killed and 300 have been injured, several houses have been buried due to landslides in the worst affected areas of Hela and Southern Highlands provinces. The search and rescue operations are still ongoing and the death toll is expected to rise. For the time being, local authorities have not requested international support. (ECHO, 27 Feb 2018)

On 1 Mar, an immediate State of Emergency has been declared for Highlands Earthquake Disaster areas in Hela, Southern Highlands, Western and Enga Provinces to expedite the restoration of essential public services. PNG government approved K450 million for relief operations and to restore services, as well as the formation of an Emergency Disaster Restoration Team and the Establishment of a Restoration Authority to manage long-term reconstruction efforts over a 4-year period. (Govt. PNG, 1 Mar 2018)

Aerial assessments have shown significant damage and large landslides, and it is estimated that up to 465,000 people may have been affected by the disaster. An estimated 247,000 people are likely to require immediate assistance. Water is reported to be scarce in affected areas due to damage to storage facilities and water sources. One of the main health facilities in the affected area, Mendi hospital, is reportedly experiencing disruption to both water and power supplies. (OCHA, 5 Mar 2018)

A strong aftershock with a magnitude of 6.7 M at a depth of 10 km occurred in the Western province on 6 March at 14.13 UTC, approximately 30 km south-east of the major 7.5 M earthquake of 25 February. According to media, as of 7 March at 8.00 UTC, at least 18 people have been killed by the 6.7 M earthquake. (ECHO, 7 Mar 2018).

The Government, private companies and humanitarian partners have focused initial relief efforts on communities in the worst-hit seven LLGs in Hela and Southern Highlands provinces. Private companies and bilateral partners, including Australia, Japan and New Zealand, play a critical role in the early phase of the response. They work closely with UN agencies, NGOs, CSO, FBOs and the Red Cross. Humanitarian partners have provided food to over 34,400 people in Nipa Kutubu LLG and Komo Magarima LLG. Up to 54,260 households are estimated to be in need of emergency shelter. To date, 100 households in Mount Bosavi LLG and another 100 households in Para/Moro have received shelter equipment.

While health facilities outside the catchment areas of private companies remain to be assessed, partners have distributed 100 per cent medical kits and 13 cartons of reproductive health kits to Mendi and Tari provincial hospitals and most impacted health facilities. Much needed vaccines (in cold boxes with cold packs) and vaccine devices have been transported to Hela, Southern Highlands, Enga and Western Highlands provinces. Routine immunization with TT vaccine are planned for over 60,000 children under 1 year of age and for over 758,000 women of reproductive age. (PNG Disaster Management Secretariat, 11 Mar 2018).

As of 13 March, the Papua New Guinea government reports that the death toll from the 7.5 magnitude earthquake has risen to at least 53, as confirmed by the two provincial disaster offices (Govt. PNG, 13 Mar 2018).

Date: 25 Feb 2018
Status: Ongoing

Uganda: Uganda: Cholera Outbreak - Feb 2018

GLIDE number: EP-2018-000021-UGA
Disaster type: Epidemic
Affected countries: Uganda

On 23 February 2018, the Uganda Ministry of Health notified WHO of an outbreak of cholera in Kyangwali refugee settlement, located in Hoima district in the western part of the country. The outbreak started on 15 February 2018...As of 23 February 2018, a total of 700 suspected cholera cases, including 27 deaths (case fatality rate 3.9%) were reported. The affected population are mostly newly arrived refugees and a few members of the host community. The most affected places are a landing site at the shores of Lake Albert and new refugee settlements in the neighbourhood. (WHO, 23 Feb 2018)

Since the beginning of the outbreak on 15 February 2018, a total of 1,151 cases, including 31 deaths (case fatality rate 2.7%), have been reported as of 27 February 2018. The majority of the affected people are refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and 67% of cases are aged 5 years and above...The cholera outbreak in the refugee settlements in Hoima District continues, with two additional sub-counties being affected. Transmission is still mainly localized in the new refugee settlements and fishing villages along Lake Albert. The outbreak is being amplified by inadequate access to safe water supplies, poor sanitation and limited handwashing facilities in the communities. (WHO, 2 Mar 2018)

Date: 23 Feb 2018
Status: Ongoing

Democratic Republic of the Congo: DR Congo: Polio Outbreak - Feb 2018

GLIDE number: EP-2018-000104-COD
Disaster type: Epidemic
Affected countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

On 13 February 2018, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared the ongoing outbreak of circulating vaccine- derived poliovirus in the country a national public health emergency. A total of 21 children presenting with typical acute accid paralysis (AFP) tested positive for vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cPVDV2) at the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB) in Kinshasa and the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD), South Africa. The outbreak has been ongoing since February 2017 and the date of onset of paralysis in the last case was 3 December 2017. Three provinces have been affected, namely Haut-Lomami (8 cases), Maniema (2 cases) and Tanganyika (11 cases). The confirmed cases are distributed across seven health zones in the three provinces Haut-Lomami [Mukanga (3 cases), Butumba (2 cases), Lwamba (2 cases) and Malemba Nkulu (1 case)], Maniema Province [Kunda (2 cases)] and Tanganyika Province [Ankoro (7 cases) and Manono (4 cases).
The Democratic Republic of the Congo has not reported wild poliovirus in the last seven years. The country reported the last case of wild polio virus on 20 December 2011, when a single case was confirmed in the Lusangl Health Zone in Maniema Province. (WHO, 16 Feb 2018)

Date: 13 Feb 2018
Status: Alert

Tonga: Tropical Cyclone Gita - Feb 2018

GLIDE number: TC-2018-000102-TON
Disaster type: Tropical Cyclone
Affected countries: American Samoa, Fiji, New Caledonia (France), Niue (New Zealand), Samoa, Tonga, Vanuatu

Tropical Cyclone Gita passed by Samoa on 10 February 2018 and Niue on 11 February 2018, with damages reported in Samoa, including localized flooding. According to the Fiji Meteorological Service, Tropical Cyclone Gita is forecast to arrive in Tonga on Monday, 12 February 2018 in the evening. It is forecast to enter Fijian territory passing the Southern Lau Group on Tuesday, 13 February 2018. (OCHA, 11 Feb 2018)

A State of Emergency was declared by the Government of Tonga at 10 am on Monday 12 February for initially one month. In Fiji, a cyclone alert has been issued for the Southern Lau Island Group, Kadavu and smaller islands in Fiji where the cyclone is expected to be passing through these waters on the 13 of February. This will continue as Tropical Cyclone Category 4 as it approaches further South-West from Fiji. Whilst in Samoa, the Government of Samoa stated a Declaration of Disaster for 48 hours starting on 10 February. TC Gita caused extensive flooding in low lying, coastal and river areas around Savai’I and Upolu. There were damages on vegetation and power was also disrupted. There was widespread flooding especially in the Vaisigano catchment area. (IFRC, 12 Feb 2018)

Tropical Cyclone Gita continued moving south-southwest away from Fiji and Tonga. On 15 February at 0.00 UTC, it was located 460 km south-east of Aneityum island (Vanuatu) and had maximum sustained winds of 194 km/h...According to media, as of 15 February at 7.00 UTC, in Tonga one person died, 33 people were injured, 4 500 people were moved into 108 evacuation centres and over 2 700 houses were damaged in the two worst affected islands of Tongatapu and 'Eua (Tonga). In Fiji, media reported no casualties or injuries. The population of Ono-i-Lau (around 470 people) was evacuated into several evacuation centres inside the island. (ECHO, 15 Feb 2018)

Tropical Cyclone Gita continued moving south-southwest away from Fiji and Tonga. On 16 February at 0.00 UTC, it was located 230 km south-east of Mare island (New Caledonia) and had maximum sustained winds of 176 km/h. Gita is forecast to weaken and pass approximately 100-150 km south of the islands of Koutoumo and Pins (New Caledonia) on 16 February morning UTC. It might then pass west of Norfolk Island on 18 February and could reach New Zealand on 20 February. (ECHO, 16 Feb 2018)

Pacific Humanitarian Team professionals are supporting Government and partners in responding to the immediate health, shelter and water and sanitation needs of affected communities in Tonga. Essential supplies are being sent to support children to return to school and dignity kits for displaced persons. Assistance to support early recovery and education response is now being deployed (UN Resident Coordinator, 19 Feb 2018).

The Government of Tonga has published a Response Plan stipulating that around EUR 20 million would be needed to help the authorities recover access to electricity and potable water, as well as to repair road networks. The plan generally focuses on large-scale infrastructures. Meanwhile, the latest analysis confirms humanitarian needs in the following sectors: shelter and NFIs, water and sanitation, health, food security and livelihoods and protection, although information gaps and contradictory data remain. (ECHO, 22 Feb 2018)

As of 23 February, 205 families are still in evacuation centers as a result of Tropical Cyclone Gita. The number of evacuation centres has decreased from 96 at the height of the disaster to 46, with 41 in Tongatapu and five in Eua. Humanitarian partners continue to support the Government-led response through the National Emergency Management Office (NEMO), line Ministries and national clusters. Following TC Gita, more than 1,900 houses and 85 schools have been damaged. There has also been a significant impact on agriculture, with 80 per cent of fruit trees and 50 per cent of root crops damaged. (OCHA, 26 Feb 2018)

As of 1 March, the number of active evacuation centers on Tongatapu and ‘Eua has significantly declined to five. Of these, two evacuation centers on Tongatapu are housing 4 families, and three evacuation centers on ‘Eua housing 11 families. A 30-day State of Emergency remains enforced until 12 March. National clusters continue to support the repose effort in the respective areas responsibility with the support of local and international organizations. (Govt. of Tonga, 1 Mar 2018)

Date: 08 Feb 2018
Status: Ongoing

Mongolia: Mongolia: Dzud - Jan 2018

GLIDE number: CW-2018-000011-MNG
Disaster type: Cold Wave, Drought
Affected countries: Mongolia

In 2017, a prolonged period of severe dry weather between mid-May and end of July, intensified by extreme high temperatures in June, damaged large swatches of cropped areas and caused a severe deterioration of pastures and rangeland conditions. An estimated 80 percent of the country was affected by drought conditions. This resulted in severe yield and area losses of the 2017 crops...The 2017 wheat production is estimated at about 231 000 tonnes, almost half of last year’s high level and over 40 percent less than the five-year average...Drought also caused a severe deterioration of pasture conditions, which prevented livestock to gain fat stores and strengthen core muscle strength, critical to overcome the normally harsh winter/spring months. According to MoFALI data, as of November 2017, overall livestock body condition is 14 percent below average... Harsh winters following summer droughts significantly increase risks for herders to lose their animals. (FAO/WFP, 22 Dec 2017).

As of 20 December 2017, the dzud risk map for winter 2017-2018, published by National Agency of Meteorology and the Environmental Monitoring shows that about 40 percent of the country is at the extreme risk of dzud and about 20 percent of the country is at high risk of dzud. In order to reflect the evolving needs of affected population, to address the recommendation from the final evaluation of previous emergency appeal operation and with the additional funding from donors, MRCS and IFRC revised the operational plan and extended the timeframe. In addition to relief activities, the operation is now supporting Dzud preparedness and National society capacity building by taking account of close consultation with the affected population and relevant authorities. (IFRC, 24 Jan 2018).

On 15 February 2018, IFRC released US$ 277,000 from its Disaster Relief Emergency Fund to assist 2,500 herder families facing very severe winter conditions in seven provinces with cash grants or emergency supplies. The emergency helpwill target the hardest-hit households, those with young children, or five or more children, an older person, or someone with a disability. A national total of 141 out of 330 soums and a city are in “dzud condition”; temperatures approaching minus 50 Celsius were expected to continue through February. (Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Change, 15 Feb 2018)

Date: 24 Jan 2018
Status: Ongoing

Democratic Republic of the Congo: DR Congo: Floods - Jan 2018

GLIDE number: FL-2018-000004-COD
Disaster type: Flood, Land Slide
Affected countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Heavy rains began pouring in Kinshasa province during the night of 3 to 4 January 2018 and continued until 7 January. The water levels of the 5 Rivers2 that cross Kinshasa province rose abnormally and the waters flew out of the river beds, causing flooding, landslide and silting in nine (9) communes of Kinshasa, namely Galiema, Bandalungwa, Selembao, Masina, Limete, Kalamu, Bumbu, Kimbaseke and Ndjili. The disaster caused the destruction of 465 houses, left 17 people injured, and claimed 51 human lives. In total, 15 743 people (2,624 households) were affected by the disaster in many ways.(IFRC, 19 Jan 2018)

Date: 22 Jan 2018
Status: Ongoing

Argentina: Argentina: Floods - Jan 2018

GLIDE number: FL-2018-000014-ARG
Disaster type: Flood
Affected countries: Argentina

During the morning of the 20th of January, intense rain resulted in an accumulated rainfall of 290 mm in Presidencia Roque Sáenz Peña (Taking in consideration that the wettest month is January with an average of 100mm of rain), causing flooding that isolated zones across the city as well as cutting the electricity supply and causing the collapse of the sewerage system. Some homes and public buildings were flooded by between 10 cm and 150 cm of water. Presidencia Roque Sáenz Peña, which is part of the Chaco Province, is located 170 km from Resistencia (provincial capital) and 1,100 km from Buenos Aires. The affected neighbourhoods are: Santa Mónica, Tiro Federal, Ginés Benítez, Monseñor de Carlo, Santa Elena, Hipólito Yrigoyen, Sáenz Peña, Milenium, San José, Piñeiro, Nala, Pablo VI and Quinta Ocho...At the time of writing the present report, 1,134 people were sheltered in three evacuation centres, of which two have problems with access to water that is fit for human consumption and difficulties with solid waste management in bathrooms.
Due to this situation, some people are suffering from illnesses such as gastro- intestinal pain and skin rashes. People who are sheltered in some of these centres do not have access to sanitary services, and there are some temporary difficulties in accessing food due to challenges in accessing the region. (IFRC, 2 Feb 2018)

The water overflowed a ring of defenses 600 kilometers from the city of Formosa. In as much, in Salta the river continues in low, although there is alert by rains in the high river basin.
Some 2,500 people from 630 families of indigenous peoples who live in the west of the province of Formosa began to be evacuated this morning by the flood of the Pilcomayo, which exceeded the defenses, while in Salta the river is still low, although there is warning of rain in the upper basin. (Gov't of Argentina, 16 Feb 2018)

Date: 20 Jan 2018
Status: Ongoing

Mauritius: Tropical Cyclone Berguitta - Jan 2018

GLIDE number: TC-2018-000007-MUS
Disaster type: Tropical Cyclone
Affected countries: Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion (France)

Since the first week of January 2018, Mauritius has been experiencing heavy rainfall over the island (over 2,000mm) within one week. On Saturday 13 January 2018, a cyclone warning Class 1 was issued for the Rodrigues due to the presence of a tropical disturbance near the island. The tropical disturbance was centred 230km north-east of Rodrigues moving west-southwest direction at about 15km per hour and was expected to increase in intensity with winds exceeding 110km per hour. On 14 January, the cyclone warning was upgraded to Class 3 for Rodrigues island which based on the trajectory of the cyclone, was going to be most affected. The winds were moving at a speed of 50km per hour with gusts of up to 120km per hour.

On Monday 15 January 2018, a cyclone warning class I was issued for Mauritius and on Tuesday 16 January 2018 a cyclone warning class II was issued as the Cyclone intensified and continued to move in a general west south westerly track at about 10 km/hr. Active bands passed over the island on the night of Wednesday 17 January 2018 as active cloud bands continued to affect the island.

The cyclone was projected to make landfall at 12:00 hours on Thursday January 19, 2018. However, the cyclone was downgraded to a tropical storm projected to make landfall as a category 1 tropical storm. On 19 January, Tropical Cyclone BERGUITTA, continued its south westerly direction and passed at about 70 Km from the south of Mauritius. BERGUITTA reduced its intensity and finally passed near Mauritius as a Severe Tropical Storm. (IFRC, 24 Jan 2018)

Date: 16 Jan 2018
Status: Past disaster

Philippines: Philippines: Mayon Volcano - Jan 2018

GLIDE number: VO-2018-000005-PHL
Disaster type: Volcano
Affected countries: Philippines

On the evening of 14 January, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHILVOLCS) raised Mayon Volcano’s alert level from II to III, signifying that Mayon has increased tendency towards hazardous eruption. On the morning of 15 January 2018, two lava collapse events occurred in the volcano, producing rockfall and small-volume pyroclastic density currents. Ash clouds were also produced with ashfalls reported in 29 villages (barangays) in the municipalities of Camalig and Guinobatan in the southwest of the volcano. Furthermore, on 16 January, lava flow and more rockfall events and short pyroclastic flows were also observed. PHILVOLCS recommended that the 6-km permanent danger zone and a 7-km extended danger zone be enforced due to the danger of rockfalls, landslides and sudden explosions or dome collapse that may generate hazardous volcanic flows. As a result of the heightened alert level, precautionary evacuations have been conducted in 25 villages (barangays) in 3 municipalities and 2 cities. As of 15 January, a total of 5,318 families (21,823 people) have been displaced, with 4,134 families (16,877) staying in 18 evacuation centres. (IFRC, 16 Jan 2018)

On 22 Jan 2018, alert level-4 (hazardous eruption imminent) was raised over Mayon Volcano located in Albay province. The danger zone was extended to an 8 km radius, up from a previous 7 km where local authorities were advised to prevent any human activity due to the danger of rockfalls, landslides and sudden explosions or dome collapse that may generate hazardous volcanic flows. As of 22 January, 7,900 families (30,000 people) have evacuated from seven Albay municipalities neighbouring Mount Mayon. (OCHA, 22 Jan 2018)

On 24 Jan 2018, the danger zone has been further extended to a 9 km radius. Around 60,500 people have been displaced and are sheltered in 52 evacuation centres or are being hosted by relatives and friends. (OCHA, 24 Jan 2018)

As of 29 January, nearly 90,000 people have been evacuated from their homes due to ongoing eruptions at Mount Mayon. The majority of displaced people are staying in 74 evacuation centres. Lack of drinking water, sanitation facilities, and hygiene and dignity kits have been noted in areas where evacuees are staying. (OCHA, 29 Jan 2018)

As of January 30, Alert level-4 (hazardous eruption imminent) remains in effect over Mayon Volcano. The volcano is showing high levels of continuing unrest, with lava fountains and frequent ash explosions occurring several times a day, according to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) (OCHA, 30 Jan 2018).

According to the Department of Social Welfare and Development, 90,183 persons have been affected by the eruption, with 72,872 taking temporary shelter in 76 evacuation centers (Govt. of Philippines, 30 Jan 2018)

Mayon Volcano remains on Level 4 alert. As of 5 February, 86,000 people are affected, with 65,000 people staying in 59 evacuation centres. A total of 57 schools and 91,300 students within the 6-9-kilometer danger zones are affected. (OCHA, 05 Feb 2018).

As of 10 February, 88,500 people from 61 barangays have been displaced due to the Mayon Volcano, with most people staying in emergency centres. The Mayon seismic monitoring network recorded 108 volcanic related earthquakes as of 11 February that resulted in lava fountains. The Department of Agriculture has provided farm supplies and materials to 10,500 affected farmers. Medical missions and psychosocial activities, as well as food and non-food items, are being delivered at the emergency centres for displaced people. (OCHA, 12 Feb 2018).

As of 19 February 2018, a Level 4 alert remains raised over Mayon Volcano. Up to 90,000 people in six municipalities and two cities of Albay province are affected, with 62,000 people currently in 57 evacuation centres. The health department has deployed a team from the regional and provincial health offices to reassess the health conditions in evacuation centers, while NGOs are conducting psychosocial activities for children living inside evacuation centers. (OCHA, 19 Feb 2018).

As of 26 February, the number of people affected by the eruption of Mount Mayon has risen to over 90,000. A level 4 alert remains in effect over the volcano. On 26 February, 36 separate lava eruptions lasting up to 19 minutes occurred. 62,000 people have been evacuated from their homes due to the volcano and are staying in 57 evacuation centres. To date, approximately USD$8.6m has been provided in assistance. The social welfare and development office has distributed 3,000 food packs and tents for temporary shelter. (OCHA, 26 Feb 2018).

As of 28 February, more than 90,000 people remain affected as a Level 4 alert continues to be raised over Mayon volcano. Almost 62,000 are staying in 57 evacuation centres. The national and regional line agencies, and local government units have provided US$8.6m worth of assistance, including the distribution of food packs and tents by the social welfare and development office. Providing education to children displaced by the volcano and supporting the livelihoods of farmers with land in the six to nine-kilometer permanent danger zone, remain key priorities. (OCHA, 5 Mar 2018).

On 6 March 2018, the alert level of the volcano has been downgraded to Level 3 due to declining in unrest reflected by moderate seismicity and degassing, deflation of the edifice, and a decrease in eruptive activity at the summit crater. As of 8 March 2018, over 49,000 people are still taking shelter in 48 evacuation centers. (Govt. of Philippines, 8 Mar 2018)

54,000 evacuees have returned home after the alert for the Mayon volcano was reduced to level 3. However, volcanic-related activity is ongoing including earthquakes, sporadic degassing and lava effusion events. The downgrading of the alert to level 3 will allow many people staying in the 61 evacuation centres to return home. However, approximately 11,000 people will have to remain in the centres and will not be able to leave until the alert is reduced further to a level 2. (OCHA, 12 Mar 2018).

Date: 14 Jan 2018
Status: Ongoing

Papua New Guinea: Papua New Guinea: Kadovar Volcano - Jan 2018

GLIDE number: VO-2018-000002-PNG
Disaster type: Volcano
Affected countries: Papua New Guinea

The remote Kadovar Island volcano became active on 5 January 2018 with mild volcanic activity on the south-eastern side of the island. The aerial assessment estimated 50-60 percent of the island covered in lava. The entire population (591 people) has been relocated to Brup Brup island. Rabaul Volcanological Observatory (RVO) has assessed that there is a possibility for Kadovar to explode which could trigger similar explosions on near by volcanic islands of Brup Brup and Biem. This may also trigger a tsunami due to landslides. (IFRC, 9 Jan 2018)

As of 15 January 2018, there is an immediate need for food, water, shelter and clothing due to the evacuation of entire population of Kadovar Island to Brup Brup Island (population 1,400). The Prime Minister’s Office is supporting the provincial government to provide 2,000 people with food and water. Meanwhile, the Provincial Government is planning to evacuate the entire population of Kadovar, Brup Brup and Biem islands (up to 4,000 people) to a site on mainland East Sepik due to risk of tsunami, and the potential for a further eruption on neighbouring Biem Island. (OCHA, 15 Jan 2018)

According to the Provincial Governor, the Government is planning to resettle Kadovar islanders on the mainland for up to three years, and will provide support to those who are displaced. The National Capital District Commission has donated Kina100,000 (US$31,000) to the ongoing relief efforts while several private sector companies have provided in-kind contributions including flour, rice and sugar. (OCHA, 22 Jan 2018)

As of 26 January, the Rabaul Volcanological Observatory (RVO) has indicated that the situation on Kadovar remained dynamic but has settled into a reasonable stable situation. There remained a small risk of tsunami to the mainland and neighbouring islands should the volcanic structure collapses. The National Disaster Centre has developed a PGK4 million response plan ($1.21 million) to meet the assessed needs of Kadovar islanders at Dandan Care Centre for up to six months. (OCHA, 27 Jan 2018)

Date: 05 Jan 2018
Status: Ongoing

Morocco: Morocco: Cold Wave - Jan 2018

GLIDE number: CW-2018-000008-MAR
Disaster type: Cold Wave
Affected countries: Morocco

At the start of 2018, temperatures are below seasonal norms in various parts of the world. In Morocco, starting from 5 January, temperatures are generally below normal. Heavy snowfall has affected the High Atlas and the Middle Atlas, from 900 meters above sea level, with temperatures as low as minus 5 ° C, where the average tempratures in January (the coldest of the 3 winter months) hovers around 18 degrees Celsius. This average includes a low of 7 degrees and a high of 23 degrees.
In the interior of the country, several roads have been cut due to snow, according to the Ministry of Transport. With its terrain mountains accustomed to very harsh winters, this area is the most affected by the cold wave that has raged between 5 and 9 January, 2018.
The cold also affects, to a lesser extent, the Atlantic coast. In Rabat, a hailstorm hit the city. An impressive amount of seaweed has been observed off the administrative capital. The heavy rains are greeted with some relief by farmers who were worried about the risk of drought. People find themselves isolated, the roads are cut, and farmers can no longer feed livestock at the foot of the Middle Atlas. (IFRC, 24 Jan 2017)

As of 8 February,All public authorities are mobilized to open up regions hit by heavy snowfall via the implementation of an intervention plan to weather the impact of the cold wave and snowfall, said on Thursday head of government Saâd Eddine El Othmani, noting that this plan involves 22 provinces, including 1205 villages under 169 communes, totalling a population of 514,000 inhabitants. (Gov't Morocco, 8 Feb 2017)

Date: 05 Jan 2018
Status: Past disaster

Madagascar: Tropical Cyclone Ava - Jan 2018

GLIDE number: TC-2018-000001-MDG
Disaster type: Tropical Cyclone
Affected countries: Madagascar, Réunion (France)

Madagascar is on alert following the identification of a low weather pressure system off the north-east coast of the country, which is expected to strengthen in the southwestern Indian Ocean basin. The weather system is already causing weather disturbances in northern Madagascar and on the islands of Réunion and Mauritius. It is expected to gain strength during the week as it tracks westward, prior to making landfall on Madagascar on 4 or 5 January 2018 (OCHA, 3 Jan 2018)

Tropical Cyclone AVA reached Madagascar’s northeast coast in the afternoon of 5 January. Heavy rains associated with AVA have been recorded in the north, north-east and east of the country since 3 January. Rising water levels have been observed in the Alaotra Mangoro and Analanjirofo regions, while flooding, interruptions to communications networks and power cuts have been reported in Fokontany Ambinany (Soanierana Ivongo). Preventive evacuations began in Brickaville on 4 January. The Malagasy authorities have issued a red alert (imminent threat) for the regions of Analanjirofo, Atsinanana and Alaotra Mangoro for 4 to 5 January, and Vatovavy Fitovinany for 5 to 6 January. In addition, several districts remain on yellow and green alert.(OCHA, 5 Jan 2018)

Tropical cyclone AVA continued moving south along the eastern coast of the country as Tropical Storm. On 8 January at 0.00 UTC its centre was located off the eastern coast of Madagascar, 200 km north-east of Taolagnaro city (Madagascar) and 800 km south-west of La Reunion island, and it had maximum sustained winds speed of 74 km/h (Tropical Storm). Over the next 24 hours, it is forecast to keep moving, heading south away from Madagascar and weakening. Heavy rain, strong winds and a storm surge could still affect southern and eastern regions of Madagascar. (ECHO, 8 Jan 2018)

According to the Malagasy authorities, as of 9 January, about 123,000 people had been directly or indirectly impacted by Tropical Cyclone Ava, with 24,800 people evacuated, 33 dead and 22 missing. The cyclone damaged 19 health centres and affected 141 schools, including 77 classrooms used as shelter for displaced people. About 34,640 children are out of school.
Road access to some south-eastern and southwestern parts of the country has been cut off. River levels have started to moderately decrease in Antananarivo and in the south-eastern coast.
However, evacuated people are still staying in several temporary sites. Remaining displaced people are mainly in Antananarivo and in the south-eastern coast; while almost all displaced people in Brickaville and Toamasina have already returned to their homes. It is common that the number of displaced people reduces in the days following a cyclone, as people return home if there are no floods or landslide threat. (OCHA, 8 Jan 2018)

Date: 04 Jan 2018
Status: Past disaster

Viet Nam: Tropical Cyclone Tembin - Dec 2017

GLIDE number: TC-2017-000182-PHL
Disaster type: Flood, Land Slide, Tropical Cyclone
Affected countries: Philippines, Viet Nam

On 20 Dec 2017, Tropical Depression "Vinta" (local name) has intensified into a tropical storm as it continues to track westward with maximum sustained winds of up to 65 kph. Scattered to widespread moderate to heavy rains is expected over Eastern Visayas, Caraga and Davao Region within 24 hours. The storm is expected to make landfall over Caraga - Davao Region area between Thursday (December 21) evening and Friday (December 22) morning. (Govt. of Philippines, 21 Dec 2017)

Tropical Storm Tembin crossed the Sulu Sea in the morning of 23 December, having passed across the southern Philippines island of Mindanao. The storm triggered mudslides and flooding causing more than 200 fatalities according to local media. 172 people are reported missing as well. According to International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), 70 000 people have been displaced. The most affected areas are in three of the regions in Mindanao. Northern Mindanao is the most affected with the massive flooding in Lanao Del Norte and in Cagayan De Oro City. (ECHO, 24 Dec 2017)

Several provinces in the island of Mindanao, Philippines, are reeling from the effects of Tropical Storm Tembin (local name: Vinta), which made landfall on Friday 22 December and exited Philippine landmass on Saturday 23 December 2017. The tropical storm has left a trail of destruction, including killing more than 170 people, displacing thousands, damaging houses and livelihoods, and disrupting normal lives of people mainly in northern and central parts of Mindanao. According to the seventh Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) report issued by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), the storm has affected at least 313,498 people in 998 barangays in regions MMAROPA, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, ARMM and CARAGA. (IFRC, 25 Dec 2017)

As of 27 December 2017, almost 112,000 people from regions MIMAROPA, IX, X, XI, XII, CARAGA and ARMM​ have been registered as IDPs staying in 231 evacuation centers. A further 30,000 people from regions IX, X, XI, and XII are known to be staying with family and friends. (Govt. of Philippines, 27 Dec 2017

As of 28 December, in total, 138,745 people are displaced, 112,553 of whom are staying in 204 evacuation centres. The remaining 26,192 displaced are hosted by friends and family. The regions hosting the highest number of displaced in evacuation centres are Region IX (17,367), Region X (29,776 including 18,460 in Lanao del Norte) and Region XI (51,415). In ARMM, 8,500 displaced people are currently staying in evacuation centres, including 1,025 in Lanao del Sur. About 66% of the displaced staying with family and friends (17,295) are located in Region XII (DSWD 28/12/2017).) (ACAPS, 28 Dec 2017)

According to DSWD, a total of 168,081 families (794,613 persons) 1,151 barangays were affected by the storm as of 1 Jan 2018. Currently 17,318 families (84,766 persons) are staying in 92 evacuation centers while 5,584 families (27,369 persons) are staying with family / friends. Over 3,500 houses are totally damaged. (Govt. of Philippines, 1 Jan 2018)

As of 2 January, 2018, over 77,000 people are staying in 72 evacuation centres in affected areas, while over 27,000 people are being hosted by friends and relatives. The NDRRMC has reported the deaths of the deaths of 165 persons, with the numbers expected to rise as search and rescue teams attempt to locate 163 missing persons believed to be buried in mud or swept away by flood waters (OCHA, 4 Jan 2018)

Most recent reports indicate that Tembin damaged 6,850 houses in 12 provinces, of which more than half were totally destroyed. As of 6 January 2018, 75,880 people remain inside 53 centres. Furthermore, conflict affected communities, IDPs and returnees to Marawi City, Lanao del Sur were also affected and remain vulnerable. (IFRC, 20 Jan 2018)

As of 11 February 2018, at least 30,000 people were displaced. Over 7,500 are staying in 22 evacuation centers. A total of 44 people were confirmed dead. More than 4,000 houses were totally damaged. (Govt. of Philippines, 11 Feb 2018)

As of 23 February 2018, over 29,000 people were still displaced. Twenty evacuation centers in Regions MIMAROPA, X, and ARMM remains open to serve at least 7,300 people. (Govt. of Philippines, 23 Feb 2018)

Date: 20 Dec 2017
Status: Ongoing

Namibia: Namibia: Hepatitis E Outbreak - Dec 2017

GLIDE number: EP-2018-000101-NAM
Disaster type: Epidemic
Affected countries: Namibia

On 18 December 2017, the Namibian Ministry of Health notified WHO of an outbreak of hepatitis E occurring in Windhoek, the capital and largest city. On 19 October 2017, a hospital in Windhoek began registering patients with signs of acute viral hepatitis who tested negative for hepatitis A, B, and C, which are commonly diagnosed at the local laboratory. Twenty-seven samples from these patients were sent to a private laboratory for hepatitis E testing. As of 20 December 2017, nine tested positive, five negative, twelve are pending, and one is missing. One death (case fatality rate 3.7%) has been reported; a woman who died four days after giving birth. Twenty-six patients (96%) were reported from six residential areas in Windhoek district; one was reported from Rehoboth district. Eight of the nine confirmed cases were residents of the Havana informal settlement in Windhoek. (WHO, 22 Dec 2017)

The capital city of Windhoek is on high alert after an outbreak of Hepatitis E that has claimed three lives, while 554 people are undergoing treatment. Namibia has been battling Hepatitis E since mid-December 2017, after the first cases were detected in an informal settlement of Windhoek. The number has since been rising steadily. (IFRC, 9 Feb 2018)

Date: 18 Dec 2017
Status: Alert

Philippines: Tropical Storm Kai-Tak - Dec 2017

GLIDE number: TC-2017-000180-PHL
Disaster type: Tropical Cyclone
Affected countries: Philippines

A new Tropical Cyclone KAI-TAK (named URDUJA in the Philippines) formed over the south west Pacific Ocean on 13 December and started moving west-northwest toward Eastern Samar province (Eastern Visayas region, Philippines). On 14 December at 0.00 UTC its centre was located 200 km south-east of Borongan city (Eastern Samar province) and it had maximum sustained wind speed of 56 km/h (Tropical Depression). (ECHO, 14 Dec 2017)

On 16 December, Tropical Storm Kai-tak (local name Urduja) made landfall over San Policarpio, Eastern Samar province. As a result of Kai-tak, two months of rain fell in 48 hours, triggering severe flooding. As of 18 December, an estimated 249,000 people in five regions (Bicol, Western Visayas, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Caraga) are affected, with 92,600 people in evacuation centres. Northern Samar Province, Tacloban and Ormoc cities declared a state of calamity. The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) activated the national response clusters to closely monitor the situation and assist local authorities in the affected areas to coordinate the response. There is no request for international assistance.(OCHA, 18 Dec 2017)

According to the NDRRMC, a total of 244,121 families (1,015,817 persons) have been affected in 1,669 barangays. As of 19 December, 19 persons have been injured and two are missing, with multiple reports of flooding and landslides. Around PHP 543 million worth of damages have been sustained on national roads, while agricultural crops have incurred around PHP 3.75 million worth of damages. (NDRRMC, 19 Dec 2017)

As of 18 December 2017, less than half of the evacuation centres are still open. Meanwhile, the Philippines’ weather bureau is currently monitoring another tropical depression outside the south-east of the Philippines. Said depression has been downgraded into a low-pressure area but is still likely to bring more rain to the Kai-tak affected areas. (IFRC, 19 Dec 2017)

As of 20 December 2017, according to the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), more than 280,000 families were affected in Region IV-B (MIMAROPA), Region-V (Bicol Region), Region VI (Western Visayas), Region VII (Central Visayas), Region VIII (Eastern Visayas) and CARAGA. Of the affected, more than 267,000 families were from Region VIII and more than 7,500 from Region V. Moreover, some 11,000 families, mostly from Northern and Western Samar province are still housed in 205 evacuation centres. (IFRC, 22 Dec 2017)

As of 24 December 2017, NDRRMC reported 425,996 families (1,780,163 persons) have been affected in 2,471 barangays in Regions MIMAPOPA, V, VI, VII, VIII, and CARAGA. A total of 45 persons were reported dead. Currently 810 families (3,473 persons) are displaced. (NDRRMC, 24 Dec 2017)

As of 1 Jan 2018, the storm affected over 1,800,000 people in 2,591 barangays. Total of 47 persons were reported dead, and over 30,000 houses were destroyed. (Govt. of Philippines, 1 Jan 2018)

As of 20 Jan 2018, NDRRMC reported 160 people dead and 163 missing. The number of fatalities will likely increase as the public authorities verify the information being received from the affected provinces. In addition to causing the loss of human lives and internal displacement, the tropical storm substantially impacted shelter, livelihoods, WASH and caused damage to critical infrastructure including roads, bridges and power transmission lines. The latest report indicates that more than 6,800 houses in 12 provinces were destroyed. Housing damage was mainly attributed to flash floods, landslides, overflowing rivers and wind damage. (IFRC, 20 Jan 2018)

As of 4 February 2018, a total of 183,436 families (808,342 persons) were displaced. Over 420,000 people were staying inside evacuation centers. More than 35,000 houses were damaged. Eleven persons confirmed dead. (NDRRMC, 4 Feb 2018)

Date: 13 Dec 2017
Status: Past disaster

South Sudan: South Sudan: Rift Valley Fever Outbreak - Dec 2017

GLIDE number: EP-2017-000183-SSD
Disaster type: Epidemic
Affected countries: South Sudan

Following a report of suspected VHF outbreak in Thonabutkok village, Yirol East County on 28 December 2017, a multi-sectoral response in the context of one health was launched by the Ministry of Health, WHO and other experts from the human and animal health for an in-depth investigation to establish the cause of deaths in three people as well as reported deaths and abortions in domestic animals and wild birds. (WHO, 10 Jan 2018)

As of 2 February 2018, a total of 26 suspect RVF human cases have been reported in Eastern Lakes State. Out of the 20 suspect human cases reported since 7 December 2017, three human cases have been confirmed, three died and were classified as probable cases with epidemiological linkage to the three confirmed cases, four were classified as none-cases following negative laboratory results for RVF, and laboratory testing is pending for the other 16 suspect cases. (WHO, 28 Jan 2018))

The Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries has declared a Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak today (12 March) in Yirol East, Yirol West and Awerial Counties of Eastern Lakes State...The RVF outbreak was first suspected in December 2017, following three deaths in humans with a history of severe hemorrhagic illness in Thonabutkok village, Yali Payam, Yirol East County, Eastern Lakes State. The initial case dated back to 7 December 2017. Abortions in goats and sheep; deaths/disease in goats and cows were also reported and epidemiologically linked to the human cases. (WHO, 12 Mar 2018)

Date: 09 Dec 2017
Status: Alert

Bangladesh: Bangladesh: Diphtheria Outbreak - Dec 2017

GLIDE number: EP-2017-000177-BGD
Disaster type: Epidemic
Affected countries: Bangladesh

Diphtheria is rapidly spreading among Rohingya refugees in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, WHO warned on 6 December 2017. More than 110 suspected cases, including 6 deaths, have been clinically diagnosed by health partners, including [MSF] and [IFRC]. (WHO, 6 Dec 2017)

The Government of Bangladesh, with the support of UNICEF, [WGO] and GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance, today launched a vaccination campaign against diphtheria and other preventable diseases for all Rohingya children aged 6 weeks to 6 years living in 12 camps and temporary settlements near the Myanmar border. Accelerated immunization will cover nearly 255 000 children in Ukhiya and Teknaf sub-districts in Cox’s Bazar, while the Government and health partners continue to increase support for diphtheria treatment and prevention. (WHO, 12 Dec 2017)

From 3 November 2017 through 12 December 2017, a total of 804 suspected diphtheria cases including 15 deaths were reported among the displaced Rohingya population in Cox’s Bazar. The first suspected case was reported on 10 November 2017 by a clinic of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Cox’s Bazar.

Of the suspected cases, 73% are younger than 15 years of age and 60% females (the sex for one percent cases was not reported). Fourteen of 15 deaths reported among suspected diphtheria cases were children younger than 15 years of age. To date, no cases of diphtheria have been reported from local communities. (WHO, 13 Dec 2017)

WHO has released US$1.5 million from its Contingency Fund for Emergencies to help finance scaling up of health operations in Cox’s Bazar over the next six months, in efforts to respond to an outbreak that has seen more than 1,500 probable cases, including 21 deaths. (WHO, 19 Dec 2017)

As of 19 December, some 1,841 suspected cases of diphtheria have been reported, with 22 deaths. (WHO, 20 Dec 2017)

As of 26 December 2017, a total of 2,526 cases suspected with diphtheria have been reported with 27 deaths recorded. Over 220,000 children under the age of 15 has been vaccinated. (WHO, 27 Dec 2017)

As of 31 December, 28 deaths and 3,014 suspected cases of diphtheria have been reported from Cox’s Bazar. Nearly 10,594 contacts of these suspected cases have been put on diphtheria preventive medication. (WHO, 2 Jan 2018)

As of 6 January 2018, a total of 3,523 cases clinically suspected with diphtheria and 58 laboratory confirmed cases (out of 185 cases tested) have been reported. 104 clinically suspected cases were admitted at diphtheria treatment facilities on 6 January 2018. A total of 30 deaths have been recorded so far. The last reported death was on 2 January. (WHO, 6 Jan 2018)

WHO and UNICEF are working with Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to vaccinate over 350,000 children in the Rohingya camps and makeshift settlements with an additional dose of diphtheria vaccine. So far, 4,800 suspected cases of diphtheria and 35 deaths have been reported in Cox’s Bazar. Thirty-seven of the suspected cases were in host communities. (WHO & UNICEF, 28 Jan 2018).

As of 27 January 2018, a total of 4907 cases clinically suspected with diphtheria have been reported. Of these, laboratory specimen information was reported for 269 cases, 88 (32.7%) of which tested positive by PCR. A total of 35 deaths have been recorded as of 27 January. Reports of diphtheria have stabilized at 50-60 case-patients per day over the last 10 days which is consistent with diphtheria antitoxin use (WHO, 29 Jan 2018).

As of 10 February 2018, a total of 5,659 diphtheria case-patients were reported. A total of 38 deaths (case-fatality proportion <1%) were recorded as of 10 February. The last diphtheria related death occurred on 2 February. The second diphtheria vaccination campaign ended on 10 February, with 391 678 children up to 15 years immunized. (WHO, 15 Feb 2018).

As of 14 February 2018, a total of 5,710 suspected diphtheria cases have been reported, with 38 deaths. During the past seven days, 230 suspected cases were reported, compared to 298 cases in the previous week. This is showing a clear declining trend since the beginning of February. Among all the suspected diphtheria cases, more than 75 per cent are children below the age of 15 years and 14 per cent are under five years of age. Twelve per cent of cases have required diphtheria anti-toxin (DAT) (UNICEF, 18 Feb 2018).

As of 17 February 2018, a total of 5,764 suspected diphtheria cases were reported, with 38 deaths. The number of reported suspected cases has remained stable with 219 new cases reported. The report of the second round of diphtheria vaccination shows that 397,375 children were vaccinated with a coverage 25 per cent higher than the first round. The third round of diphtheria vaccination will start on 10 March. (UNICEF, 25 Feb 2018).

As of 1 March 2018, 5,882 suspected diphtheria cases including 38 deaths have been reported, with 171 cases in the week of 23 February. This is a declining trend from 219 and 280 cases in the preceding two weeks. The third round of diphtheria vaccination will be held from 10 to 25 March with increased focus on communicating the importance of this campaign to the community. Independent monitoring in round two led to estimates that up to 60,000 children were missed. (UNICEF, 1 Mar 2018). On 10 March 2018, the number of suspected cases rose to 6,132 (WHO, 13 Mar 2018)

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Date: 06 Dec 2017
Status: Ongoing

Albania: Albania: Floods - Nov 2017

GLIDE number: FL-2017-000174-ALB
Disaster type: Flood
Affected countries: Albania

Heavy rainfall affected the territory of Albania since 30 November 2017. In some areas the density of rain was 130 mm for two uninterrupted hours... The populated areas most affected by the rivers overflowed are the following: Fushë- Krujë, Ura e Gjoles, Murqine, Vore, Kamez, Laprake, Darzeze, Jaru, Bishtan, Ferras, Kashisht, Martin, Novosele, Bishan, Mifol, Fitore, Ure Vajgurore, Korce, and Gjirokaster...Official figures provided by the governmental structures shows that 3,340 houses are flooded, 65 bridges are collapsed, and 56 public schools are damaged, while 15,000 ha land is under water. In some areas, the water was not suitable for drinking; while the electricity is cut off in same of the affected areas.

According to the preliminary information provided by the 18 Red Cross branches which are operating in the flooded areas, approximately 4,700 families or approximately 21,0000 people have been affected by the floods, however, according to the updated assessment, about 2,000 families have been identified as severely affected with considerable losses. The affected families have lost mostly their winter food reserves and partly their livestock, home furniture and electro-domestic devices. (IFRC, 11 Dec 2017)

Date: 30 Nov 2017
Status: Past disaster

Yemen: Yemen: Diphtheria Outbreak - Nov 2017

GLIDE number: EP-2017-000175-YEM
Disaster type: Epidemic
Affected countries: Yemen

Diphtheria is making an alarming comeback in the war torn country, with 189 clinically diagnosed cases and 20 deaths – mostly children and young adults – in the last three months. Most diphtheria cases and deaths have been reported in Ibb governorate but the outbreak is spreading fast, already affecting 13 governorates. The closest points of entry to Ibb are in Sana’a and Hodeida, making it crucial that Sana’a airport and the port of Hodeida remain open. (WHO, 27 Nov 2017)

By 4 December, 318 suspected cases of diphtheria and 28 deaths had been reported in 15 of Yemen’s 20 governorates. Half the suspected cases are children between the ages of 5 and 14, and nearly 95% of deaths are children under 15. Nearly 70% of all suspected cases are in Ibb governorate. (MSF, 12 Dec 2017)

312 suspected cases of diphtheria have been reported in Yemen between mid-August and 20 December. The outbreak has resulted in 35 deaths reported. At 11%, the case fatality rate (CFR) is high. 18 out of Yemen’s 22 governorates are affected, with Ibb having the majority of cases. (ACAPS, 22 Dec 2017)

As of 28 January 2018, Yemen is grappling with a spike in diphtheria, which has claimed 48 lives in the last two months. WHO reported on 11 January 2018 that diphtheria-related deaths had been recorded in 19 governorates. Across the country, 610 suspected cases have been reported. The diphtheria outbreak occurs against the backdrop of a cholera epidemic accounting for more than 2,200 lives lost and more than one million suspected cases reported, since April 2017. (OCHA, 28 Jan 2018)

WHO reports that, as of 15 February 2018, the cumulative number of suspected diphteria cases is 1,085 with 66 associated deaths. 20 governorates and 162 districts have reported suspected cases. Ibb and Al Hudaydah are the most affected governorates. Children under the age of five years account for 30 per cent of suspected cases and for 47 per cent of dipheria associated deaths. (OCHA, 18 Feb 2018)

According to MoPHP, as of 24 February 2018, there are 1,172 probable diphtheria cases, including 72 associated deaths, in 168 districts among 20 governorates. The most affected governorates are Ibb (433 cases) and Al Hudaydah (145) Case Fatality Ratio (CFR) is 6.1 %. Children under the 5 years of age represent 20 % of probable cases and 36% of deaths. (WHO/UNICEF, 24 Feb 2018)

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Date: 27 Nov 2017
Status: Ongoing