Unidad de Investigación en Emergencia y Desastre (UIED)

30 de junio de 2022
Erasmus Mundus Master in Public Health in Disasters



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Unidad de Investigación en Emergencia y Desastre. Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud. 7ª Planta
Campus del Cristo
33006 Oviedo - España
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Unidad de Investigación en Emergencia y Desastre (UIED)

Desastres activos

Afghanistan: Earthquake - Jun 2022

Affected countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan
Glide: EQ-2022-000232-AFG

At 01.30 local time on 22 June, a 5.9 magnitude earthquake struck the Central Region of Afghanistan impacting Paktika and Khost provinces. The earthquake – which was recorded at a depth of 10 km – was reportedly felt in neighbouring provinces including Kabul, as well as in Islamabad, Pakistan and India. Affected districts identified to date include Barmal, Ziruk, Nika and Giyan in Paktika province and Spera district in Khost Province. Gayan district in Paktika province is reportedly the worst affected with up to 200 people killed and 100 people injured, many of them seriously. The number of people killed or injured has yet to be confirmed. In addition, up to 1,800 homes have reportedly been destroyed and damaged in Gayan, representing 70 per cent of the district’s housing stock. In Spera district, Khost province, 25 people have reportedly been killed and 20 injured. (OCHA, 22 Jun 2022)

A massive earthquake measuring 5.9 on the Richter scale hit the three eastern provinces of Paktika, Paktia and Khost last night. So far, around 920 casualties have been reported. "This number will definitely increase, as the region is very mountainous and difficult to access," says Naeem Shah, Johanniter Head of Mission in Afghanistan. Johanniter, together with its partner HADAAF, has been providing medical assistance to the residents of Khost province and the Pakistani refugees living there in Gulan Camp. HADAAF has already sent assessment teams to the affected areas in Khost. (Johanniter, 22 Jun 2022)

After the 5.9 M earthquake that occurred in the Spera District (Khost Province, eastern Afghanistan) close to the border with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (north-western Pakistan), the number of casualties has increased. The most affected Provinces are Paktika, Khost, and Nangarhar. Needs assessment continues today and tomorrow. The most important immediate needs are in the sectors of food, health/trauma, and basic non-food items and emergency shelter. In Pakistan, one person died, and two houses have been damaged in Lakki Marwat District (southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), following the seismic event. (ECHO, 23 Jun 2022)

To date, around 770 people are estimated to have been killed across Barmal (500) and Giyan (238) districts in Paktika province, and Spera district (29) in Khost province. In addition, at least 1,455 people have been injured across three of the six most affected districts of Barmal, (1,000), Giyan (393), and Spera (62) – many of them seriously. Further, nearly 1,500 homes have now been verified as destroyed and damaged in Giyan district, Paktika province. On the evening of 22 June, the Ministry of Defense confirmed that 90 per cent of search and rescue operations had been finalized. Additional assessments are taking place today to verify this, however, and casualties may rise further. (OCHA, 23 Jun 2022)

On 24 June, Pakistan’s Meteorological Department recorded a 4.2 magnitude aftershock in Giyan District, Paktika province – one of the worst-affected districts following Wednesday’s 5.9 magnitude earthquake. Local media reports that the aftershock killed five people and injured a further 11 have yet to be verified. Currently, the death toll from Wednesday’s earthquake stands at around 770 people killed and nearly 1,500 wounded. (OCHA, 25 Jun 2022)

Latest findings from needs assessments reveal that at least 155 children were killed and nearly 250 children were injured by the earthquake, with 86 per cent losing their lives in Giyan district (134), Paktika province alone. Additionally, 65 children have reportedly been orphaned or left unaccompanied as a result of the tremor. Findings from assessments further highlight that almost 1,900 homes across Giyan (1,028) and Barmal (450) districts in Paktika province, and Spera (416) district in Khost province have been destroyed. Many more are estimated to have experienced extensive damage and are at-risk of collapse. Shelter assessments to ascertain the full extent of damage are continuing. (OCHA, 26 Jun 2022)

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), after the 5.9 M earthquake occurred on 21 June in Spera District (Khost Province, eastern Afghanistan), 1,039 people have died, 2,949 people have been injured and 4,500 houses have been partially or fully damaged across Paktika and Khost Provinces. The most affected Districts are Giyan, Barmal, and Ziruk Districts in Paktika Province, and Spera in Khost Province. On 24 June, an aftershock of 4.3 M hit the affected area, and at least five persons died while 11 others were injured. Needs assessments are being completed, the final numbers of death and affected are being confirmed. Humanitarian assistance in Paktika and Khost Provinces is continuing. (ECHO, 27 Jun 2022)

On 27 June, the Humanitarian Coordinator launched an emergency appeal calling for $110 million to urgently help 362,000 men, women and children for the next three months in the hardest-hit areas in the provinces of Paktika and Khost. This new appeal is part of this year’s Humanitarian Response Plan, which calls for $4.4 billion, but is massively underfunded at just over one third. The UN and humanitarian partners are borrowing stocks, personnel, and resources from existing humanitarian programmes, which will have immediate impact if these stocks are not replenished (particularly food stocks and WASH supplies). (OCHA, 27 Jun 2022)

Kiribati: Drought - Jun 2022

Affected country: Kiribati
Glide: DR-2002-000244-KIR

On 11 June, the Kiribati Government declared a State of Disaster due to drought. According to government sources, the entire country (some 120,000 people) has been affected - with the most critical situation to be reported on the island of Tarawa. The immediate response is to focus on 50,000 of the most affected people (about 40% of the country’s total population), including those living on South Tarawa and the outer islands. They will be provided with WASH and hygiene kits from prepositioned stocks and subsequently with further humanitarian relief supplies from warehouses in Suva, Fiji, and Brisbane, Australia. This follows an initial assistance of 100 solar distillation units for outer communities last week. The Pacific Humanitarian Team is working closely with Government counterparts and partners on the ground to further assess the situation and to provide support to the Government-led response. (OCHA, 28 Jun 2022)

Bangladesh: Floods and Landslides - May 2022

Affected country: Bangladesh
Glide: FL-2022-000217-BGD

Due to heavy rainfall over the past week in the Northeastern Indian states there is an increase of water level observed in the North Eastern part of Bangladesh which led a serious flood in that region. Mainly several places of the 5 districts in that region are inundated by excessive rainfall but Sylhet and Sunamganj district affected the most severally. Alongside with Government of Bangladesh several national and international agencies have already started providing support to the affected communities. According to latest update by Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre (FFWC), water is flowing above danger level (up to 1m) in several station of Surma and Kushiyara river at Sylhet and Sunamganj. [...] The forecast of FFWC shows that, flood situation may improve in the several areas of Sylhet where as situation may be worsen in the low lying area of Netrokona district. Many people in these areas are living in a very miserable life as they need emergency food and water support immediately.

Around 2 million people have been impacted due to the flood. They are reeling from a food and drinking water crisis. Around 1.5 lakh families in Sylhet and Sunamganj have been without power since 17 May 2022 due to submergence of Power Stations. More than 873 educational institutions, mostly government primary schools, have been closed due to severe flooding in the two districts, causing loss of learning to the students. (CARE, 21 May 2022)

Eight males have died; three children (aged 11, and 13) have died due to lightning while helping parents save their crops in the field, three people died due to a boat capsize (aged 32, 51 and 60), one person died due to a landslide (aged 27) and one person (aged 35) died due to drowning. 96 people have been affected by waterborne diseases. Over 750 educational institutions, mostly government primary schools, have been closed due to severe flooding in two districts, causing a loss of learning for the students. (UNICEF, 24 May 2022)

A total of 133 villages of six unions at Companiganj Upazila of Sylhet district with an estimated 46,500 individuals have been affected by the ongoing flood. Moreover, about 72,300 people have been affected by the flash flood in Kanaighat Upazila of Sylhet district with 329 houses damaged (268 partial and 61 fully damaged). About 1,137 hectares of agricultural land and 205 sq. km area have been inundated. Meanwhile, in Goainghat Upazila of Sylhet district, about 69,165 people of 10 unions have been affected by this flash flood with 396 houses damaged (345 partial and 51 fully damaged). (IFRC, 25 May 2022)

Heavy monsoon rains and water from upstream in India's northeast have inundated large parts of the Sylhet division, leaving millions of people marooned and triggering a humanitarian crisis. According to the Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre (FFWC), around 94 percent of Sunamganj and over 84 percent of Sylhet are submerged. The crisis struck at a time when the people of the division were recovering from unexpected recent floods that hit in late May. An estimated 4.3 million people are impacted by this sudden flash flood and water congestion in seven northeastern districts of Sylhet, Sunamganj, Moulivazar, Habiganj, Netrakona, and Brahmanbaria. Many households are isolated due to floods, while some have taken shelter in open areas. The safety and security of women and girls in those households are at high risk. As many as 25,000 people have been taken to around 450 shelter centres in Sylhet; at the same time, 65,000 people were evacuated to 200 shelter centres in Sunamganj in a combined effort of the Army, Navy, Fire Service, and the local authorities. Besides the northeast, the mild flood also hit the northern districts. The GoB in a press conference said 64 Upazilas in 10 districts have been hit by the flood all over Bangladesh. (UN RC Bangladesh, 19 Jun 2022)

Heavy monsoon rains and flash floods have affected an estimated 6.8 million people in the northeastern part of Bangladesh. Some 459,567 people have been evacuated to 1432 safety centers. There are reports of disruption in power supply and both land and air transportation. Education and health facilities have been affected, and protection concerns have been raised as the safety centers are ill-equipped. The government authorities and humanitarian partners are distributing relief items; however, the relief operations are encountering logistical challenges. The Humanitarian Coordination Task Team (HCTT) is working closely with partners to assess the situation and provide support to the government-led response. (OCHA, 20 Jun 2022)

Initial reports from the Government of Bangladesh highlight widescale displacement with approximately 481,827 people displaced to 1,605 institutional shelters in four districts across the flood-affected area (Sunamganj, Netrokona, Sylhet, Moulvibazar). 1.6 million children are at risk due to severe floods, threatened by a high risk of drowning and VACW, including gender-based violence/IPV, and family separation as a result of overcrowded shelters. In the last 35 days (17th May – 20th June 2022), the National Health Emergency Operations Centre and Control Room of DGHS recorded a total of 2,492 cases of diseases and injuries. (UN RC Bangladesh, 22 Jun 2022)

On June 26, the Flood Forecasting and Warning Center reported all major rivers in the country in falling trend. Experts fear increased prevalence of communicable diseases, particularly waterborne disease outbreaks as the floodwater recedes. While the flood situation may continue improving in next 24 hours in the Northeastern region, short duration floods in the low-lying area of Shariatpur & Madaripur districts are to be expected in the next 24 hours. Government allocated 3.720 metric tons of rice and USD half million in cash, while humanitarian agencies mobilized USD 4.7 million. (ECHO, 27 Jun 2022)

Flash floods have affected 7.2 million people in nine districts in northeastern Bangladesh. The Humanitarian Coordination Task Team (HCTT), co-chaired by the Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief and the UN Resident Coordinator’s Office, has approved a HCTT response plan for flash floods calling for US$58.4 million for prioritized assistance to 1.5 million flood-affected people in five districts, from July to December 2022. The response plan is informed by needs assessment and rapid gender analysis and will complement the government-led response. The priority sectors are food security and nutrition, shelter, WASH and protection, and the priority districts are Sunamganj, Netrokona, Sylhet, Habiganj and Moulvibazar. (OCHA, 27 Jun 2022)

India: Floods and Landslides - May 2022

Affected country: India
Glide: FL-2022-000213-IND

Heavy rainfall has been affecting northeastern India (in particular Arunchal Pradesh, Assam, and Meghalaya States) since 13 May, triggering landslides and causing river overflow and floods that have resulted in casualties and damage. Media report, as of 16 May, seven fatalities, of which one in Itanagar City (southern Arunchal Pradesh), due to a landslide, three in the Dima Hasao District (central Assam) also in this case due to a landslide, and three more across central Meghalaya (two in East Khasi Hills District and one Ri-Bhoi District) due to floods. Moreover, in Arunchal Pradesh media report three injured people, while in Meghalaya one person is missing. In addition, 70 destroyed, hundreds of damaged houses and around 25,000 affected people were reported across several Districts of Assam. (ECHO, 16 May 2022)

The number of fatalities has increased in north-eastern India, after landslides, floods and rivers overflow have been affecting particularly Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, and Meghalaya States. According to media, at least five persons died and six others were injured after two landslides hit Itanagar City (Arunachal Pradesh) on 16 May. Floods in central Meghalaya State caused three fatalities. In Assam State, two people died and three others are missing in Cachar District, as reported by the Assam State Disaster Management Authority (ASDMA). About 33,000 persons have been displaced to relief camps, while more than 197,000 people have been affected. 12 relief distribution centres have also been opened up. Rescue operations are being carried out by National and State Disaster Response Forces (NDRF & SDRF), Fire and Emergency Services and local population. (ECHO, 17 May 2022)

Heavy rainfall continues to affect northeastern India (in particular Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, and Nagaland States) and the neighbouring eastern Bangladesh (particularly the Sylhet Division) since 13 May, triggering landslides and causing river overflow and floods that have resulted in casualties and damage. In India the death toll reached 16. Media report, as of 19 May, 8 fatalities in Assam (across Dima Hasao, Cachar, and Udalguri Districts), 5 fatalities in Arunchal Pradesh (across the Itanagar District) and 3 more fatalities in Meghalaya (across East Khasi Hills, and Ri-Bhoi Districts), mainly due to floods and lanslides. In addition, 4 missing people were reported across the aforementioned States. The flood situation has particularly deteriorated in Assam. Assam State Disaster Management Authority (ASDMA) report, as of 18 May, 662,385 people affected and nearly 40,000 displaced in 27 districts of the State. (ECHO, 19 May 2022)

Heavy rainfall continues to cause widespread and severe flooding and landslides across north-eastern India, resulting in increased human impact. According to media reports in India, at least 33 people died in Bihar State due to floods, thunderstorms and lightning, while floods and landslides in Assam State caused at least 14 fatalities and affected about 1.7 Million people in 29 districts. (ECHO, 23 May 2022)

The State of Assam (north-eastern India) continues to be affected by floods and landslides, leading to casualties. According to the Indian National Disaster Management Authority (NDMI), at least 36 people have died since the beginning of April. About 26,600 individuals have been evacuated to relief camps across Assam. (ECHO, 1 Jun 2022)

A number of landslides triggered by heavy rainfall have been affecting western Meghalaya State (north-eastern India), resulting in casualties. According to media, three people died and one other was injured after a landslide in West Garo Hills District, while one individual died due to a landslide in South West Garo District. The area has already been affected by recent severe floods, which caused damage to properties and road sections. (ECHO, 10 Jun 2022)

On 13 June, a landslide triggered by continuous heavy rainfall occurred in Guwahati City (Assam State, north-eastern India), resulting in at least four fatalities, as reported by media. Since the beginning of the current monsoon season in India, Assam State has been one of the most affected areas. According to the Indian National Disaster Management Authority (NDMI), at least 38 people have died and nine others are missing. about 145,700 individuals have been evacuated to relief camps across Assam, while more than 121,200 houses have been damaged or destroyed. River Brahmaputra River is flowing above the danger level and rescue efforts are being undertaken by State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF), district administration, Fire & Emergency Services and Police. Besides flooding Assam, the southwest monsoon active in sub-Himalayan Bengal and adjoining areas has also led to landslides at a number of locations in the state of Sikkim and flooding in Jalpaiguri, Alipurduar and Cooch Behar districts of north Bengal. (ECHO, 16 Jun 2022)

With rains continuing relentlessly in Assam, as of 16 June, approximately 1.1 million people in 1,702 villages of 35 districts have been affected including Bajali, Darrang and Goalpara which are the worst affected. According to Assam State Disaster Management Authority (ASDMA) 68,331 inmates have taken shelter in 150 relief camps and 42 deaths have been recorded since the beginning of the monsoons in 2022. Apart from Assam, extremely heavy rains have affected normal life in Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, nine persons, including six children, died due to the monsoon floods and landslides. (ECHO, 17 Jun 2022)

Heavy monsoon rains continue to affect particularly north-eastern India and Bangladesh, triggering landslides, causing rivers overflow, a number of severe weather-related incidents and floods that have resulted in casualties and damage. In India, NDMI reports, as of 21 June, 358 fatalities across Himachal Pradesh (147 fatalities), Assam (81), Meghalaya (34), Gujarat (26), Bihar (17), Kerala (14), Arunachal Pradesh and Karnataka (12 each one), Tripura (5), Punjab, Nagaland and Maharashtra (3 each one), and Sikkim (1). NDMI reports 54 missing persons, 937 injured people, nearly 380,500 evacuated people in 2,551 relief centres and over 130,500 damaged houses in 135 Districts across the aforementioned States. (ECHO, 22 Jun 2022)

Heavy monsoon rains continue to affect several States of India since mid-May, triggering landslides, causing floods, and a number of severe weather-related incidents that have resulted in casualties and damage. According to the National Institute of Disaster Management (NDMI), 418 people have died, most across Himachal Pradesh (152 fatalities), Assam (100), Meghalaya (34) and Madhya Pradesh (34). A total of 56 people are still missing, 946 are injured and more than 450,000 evacuated in 3,130 relief camps. (ECHO, 24 Jun 2022)

Somalia: Rain and Windstorms - May 2022

Affected country: Somalia
Glide: VW-2022-000214-SOM

On 12 May 2022, the local government of Galkacyo hosted an inter-agency coordination meeting where they requested assistance from humanitarian partners to address the immediate and urgent humanitarian needs assessed in 18 out of 20 makeshift camps located in the periphery of the city. This is following sudden heavy rains and windstorms which struck North Galkacyo on 10 May, impacting the city of Galkayo and its surrounding areas, which host the camps. The most affected people by this disaster are approximately 4,416 internally displaced people (736 HH) living in 18 of the 20 recorded camps. These 18 camps around Galkayo are home to approximately 40,254 internally displaced persons (IDP) or 6,709 households. (IFRC, 21 May 2022)

Niger: Drought - May 2022

Affected country: Niger
Glide: DR-2022-000210-NER

In Niger, over four million households are facing the devastating effects of food insecurity caused by consecutive failed rainy seasons and decades of increasing desertification of the Sahel. The severe food insecurity situation is confirmed by the Cadre Harmonisé findings, which reported that between 2.5 and 3.3 million people are currently food insecure countrywide (Phase 3 to 5 as per the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification – IPC), and that between 3.6 and 4.4 million people will be food insecure in June – August 2022 period due to a delayed 2022 rainy season and irregular distribution of rainfall, long dry spells, and high risks of flooding that can lead to losses in crops, material goods, and animal and human lives in exposed localities. (IFRC, 9 May 2022)

South Sudan: Cholera Outbreak - May 2022

Affected country: South Sudan
Glide: EP-2022-000236-SSD

The current cholera outbreak in Bentiu, is in an area with a population of 300,000 people living in formal and informal camps. Despite 2 rounds of oral cholera vaccine, transmission is continuing due to population movement and poor conditions. The outbreak has the potential for escalation to at-risk counties (Mayom, Leer, Guit, Mayendit, Pariang, Panyijiar, Juba) due to population movements, floods, and access to safe water and sanitation. There is continued high numbers of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) since the start of 2022, with an average of 890 cases per week in Bentiu IDP and town, amounting to a total 3,704 AWD cases across 5 health facilities in the IDP camp. (UNICEF, 30 April 2022)

A Cholera outbreak has been declared in Rubkona county, Unity State. The declaration follows the confirmation of cholera in eight cases following tests by the National Public Health Laboratory in Juba. To date, a total of 31 cases including one death have been reported from Rubkona town and Bentiu IDP camp. (Govt. South Sudan, 7 May 2022)

Cumulatively, 212 cholera cases have been reported, of which 36 were cholera RDT positive with 15 testing culture positive at the National Reference Laboratory in Juba. One of the RDT positive cases died giving 0.47% case fatality rate (CFR). First round of oral cholera vaccination campaign in Juba ended on 19 June 2022. (WHO, 22 Jun 2022)

Afghanistan: Flash Floods - May 2022

Affected country: Afghanistan
Glide: FF-2022-000209-AFG

Heavy and unseasonal rainfall across large parts of Afghanistan on the 3 May caused flash flooding events directly affecting an estimated 3,400 people. Local reports indicate that at least 13 people died including in Badghis (five), Baghlan (four), Hirat (one), Kunduz (one) and Parwan (two) provinces. Some 1,270 houses were either destroyed (437) or damaged (833). The number of affected people is expected to increase as assessments are completed. Inter-agency assessment and response teams have been mobilized to assist affected families with nearly 3,400 people assessed and over 1,000 supported with temporary shelter and food assistance so far. Other immediate relief items to be provided include: multipurpose cash, tents, emergency latrines and shelter kits as well as water, sanitation, hygiene, and health services. (OCHA, 10 May 2022)

Flash floods have destroyed homes and livelihoods in at least four provinces following heavy rains on 21 June. WFP is awaiting the results of ongoing vulnerability assessments to determine if emergency response is needed. (WFP, 27 Jun 2022)

Eritrea: Drought - May 2022

Affected country: Eritrea
Glide: DR-2022-000239-ERI

The Horn of Africa is currently facing the fourth consecutive below-average rainfall season since late 2020 due to La Niña conditions, which is aggravating the current water crisis and ongoing drought in five countries. Up to 20 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia will need water and food assistance until the end of 2022 due to drought, insecurity, conflict and economic challenges. Early climate forecasts suggest an increased probability of another below-average season between October and December 2022. (UNICEF, 6 Jun 2022)

Worsening drought conditions in southern Ethiopia, eastern and northern Kenya, and southern and central Somalia led to severe water and pasture shortages, livestock deaths, below-average harvests (65 percent in Somalia & 70 percent in marginal agricultural areas of Kenya), sharply increasing cereal and other staple food prices while also eroding household purchasing power. A fourth consecutive below-average rainfall season is highly likely during GU (March to May) rains complicating the situation ... The risk of skyrocketing domestic food inflation remains high in six out of the ten Eastern Africa countries, four of which are already experiencing double-digit food inflation (13 percent in Somalia, 16 percent in Burundi, 42 percent in Ethiopia and 258 percent in Sudan). Sudan, Eritrea, and Djibouti are the highest at risk of increased and higher inflation because of the Ukraine’s war. (WFP, 5 May 2022)

Venezuela: Floods - Apr 2022

Affected country: Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Glide: FL-2022-000207-VEN

This year, the rainy season in Venezuela has been atypical. As a result, on 27 April, the states of Mérida, Zulia, Trujillo, Táchira, and the Capital District and Greater Caracas were declared in a state of emergency. On 27 May, an orange alert was declared in the Zulia region due to increased rainfall and the re-re-channelling of the Zulia River to the southern Lake Maracaibo. This situation has affected an estimated 56,778 people, 6,159 houses and a loss of 150,000 agricultural hectares in the Zulia province.

According to the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, three more tropical waves were expected to hit early June, worsening the country's severe conditions. Since June 6th, the impact of the Tropical Storm Six has exceeded the response capacity because of the damages reported due to the saturation of soil humidity, which caused floods across the country. In the state of Merida, 30,000 people have been affected in at least 20 sectors, including the damages to houses and infrastructure, and roads are waterlogged, limiting the access to communities. (IFRC, 22 Jun 2022)

Tanzania: Cholera Outbreak - Apr 2022

Affected country: United Republic of Tanzania
Glide: EP-2022-000211-TZA

On 23 April 2022, the government reported cholera cases in Uvinza DC (Kigoma region) and Tanganyika DC (Katavi region). By 28 April 2022, the outbreak had spread to other areas along the lake shores of Lake Tanganyika with a total of 129 symptomatically suspected cases, of which eight were confirmed. Most of the affected locations are fishing villages with poor sanitation practices that include open defecation and densely populated areas which lack adequate sanitation with poor access to clean and safe water, posing a danger for further spread of the epidemic. Zero fatalities have been reported to date. (IFRC, 19 May 2022)

At least 181 cases of cholera have been reported since the government announced the outbreak on 23 April 2022. No fatalities have been reported. The outbreak has spread from the initial locations in the regions of Kigoma and Katavi to other areas along the shores of Lake Tanganyika with a risk of a further spread. More than 40 percent of the cases occurred among children younger than five years of age. Authorities have reacted swiftly and there is an active surveillance system in place. The Ministry of Health has set up a task force within the government. Organisations, such as the Tanzanian Red Cross and UNICEF, are responding with a variety of activities, including water, sanitation, health and hygiene measures, risk communication and community engagement. (ECHO, 25 May 2022

DR Congo: Ebola Outbreak - Apr 2022

Affected country: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Glide: EP-2022-000205-COD

The health authorities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo today declared an outbreak of Ebola after a case was confirmed in Mbandaka, a city in the north-western Equateur Province. This is the third outbreak in the province since 2018. (WHO, 23 Apr 2021)

The [DR] Congo today kicked off Ebola vaccination in Mbandaka, the capital city of Equateur Province in the north-west, to halt the spread of the virus following an outbreak which has claimed two lives since 21 April. Around 200 doses of the rVSV-ZEBOV Ebola vaccine have been shipped to Mbandaka from the eastern city of Goma. More doses will be delivered progressively in the coming days. The vaccination uses the “ring strategy” where the contacts and the contacts of contacts of confirmed Ebola patient are given the vaccine as well as frontline and health workers. So far, 233 contacts have been identified and are being monitored. Three vaccination teams are already on the ground and will work to reach all the people at high risk. To date, two cases, both deceased, have been confirmed since the outbreak began. The disease has currently been reported only in Mbandaka health district. (WHO, 27 Apr 2021)

Liberia: Measles Outbreak - Apr 2022

Affected country: Liberia
Glide: EP-2022-000208-LBR

On Thursday 21 April 2022, Liberia Health Ministry declared a measles outbreak affecting 14 of the 15 counties in the country. According to the Liberian Government, the outbreak is a result of low immunization rates, due to disruption of immunization activities for COVID-19 and people’s misconception on immunization. According to the Liberian Ministry of Health (MoH), the case threshold for measles outbreak corresponds to three to five cases reported in a single location in seven days. Per the National Public Health Institute’s weekly update on Liberia Public Health Surveillance & Response System, covering the period 4-10 April 2022 (Report week 14) Montserrado County only accounted for 135 cases and 03 deaths. Moreover, two County Health Teams, Nimba and Grand Bassa reported on 22 April respectively 230 and 91 cases. Total cumulative cases from these counties accounted for 456 cases including, 189 probable and 236 suspected. (IFRC, 10 May 2022)

In response to the ongoing measles outbreak, a total 103,038 children have been vaccinated between the ages of 9-35 months with measles containing vaccines (MCV) across fourteen counties excluding Margibi during phase one of the response intervention. Also, on May 31, 2022, the country received 381,400 doses of MCV in preparation of phase two slated for June 16-22, 2022 in all counties. (Government of Liberia, 09 June 2022)

Zambia: Cholera Outbreak - Apr 2022

Affected country: Zambia
Glide: EP-2022-000203-ZMB

On 11 April 2022, a cholera outbreak was declared in Zambia with its index case reported in Mtendere compound which has a population of 106,128 within Chelstone Subdistrict and Matero with a population of 356,462, within Lusaka. By 18 April 2022, the outbreak had spread to other areas within Lusaka with a cumulative total of 16 suspected cases of which 8 were confirmed, distributed as follows: Lusaka Province – 7 (Lusaka District 12; - Mtendere 4, Kabangwe 1, Kamwala 1 and Matero 1), Chilanga District (Midles-west 2, Apolo1, and ZESCO Kalundu 2) Northern Province 5 (Nsama District – Nsumbu 5). These are densely populated areas which lack adequate sanitation and access to clean and safe water, posing a danger for further spread of the epidemic. No fatalities have been reported to date.

Although this cholera outbreak has occurred outside the rainy season, it has the potential to mimic the 2017-2018 outbreak, which started in one area and spread to other hotspots within Lusaka, and eventually to other parts of the country. Already, there are reports of suspected cases in Nsumbu area in Nsama District in Northern Province, and the Ministry of Health is yet to rule out epidemiological link between the two events through a risk assessment and patients record tracking. Once the risk assessment report is shared with partners, it will become clearer regarding the situation and gaps in the response strategy. However, MoH has put in place systems for the response and a Lusaka Provincial multi-sectoral response plan is being finalised and will be shared with relevant stakeholders.

Zambia faces challenges to attain universal access to safe and clean drinking water, as well as inadequate sanitation, especially in densely populated and unplanned settlements in urban settings. These conditions, coupled with the poor hygiene practices among citizens, has caused recurrent outbreaks of WASH related diseases. To note, although Cholera is endemic in Zambia, the country has not had an outbreak since 2019 owing to various cholera preventive interventions being implemented within the context of the country’s Multi-sectoral Cholera Elimination Plan. (IFRC, 22 Apr 2022)

South Africa: Floods and Landslides - Apr 2022

Affected country: South Africa
Glide: FL-2022-000201-ZAF

On 11-13 April, severe flooding and landslides caused by heavy rainfall affected southern and south-eastern South Africa, particularly the Provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape. According to national authorities, 443 people died in KwaZulu-Natal and over 40,000 are missing. More than 40,000 people have been displaced, while nearly 4,000 houses were destroyed and more than 8,000 others were damaged, mostly across Durban City and its surrounding areas. A National State of Disaster has been declared in response to the floods and landslides, and rescue teams have been deployed to the affected areas to provide humanitarian assistance to those most affected. The International Disaster Charter 755 was activated for South Africa. On 19-20 April, moderate rainfall is forecast over north-eastern South Africa, while no heavy rainfall is expected over the already affected Provinces. (ECHO, 19 Apr 2022)

Severe flooding and landslides caused by heavy rainfall on 11-13 April caused the death of 448 people, displaced over 40,000 people and completely destroyed over 12,000 houses in the south-east part of South Africa. It also severely damaged infrastructures: roads, health centres, schools. On 18 April, the President of South Africa declared a national state of disaster due to floods severity. On 20 April, DG ECHO field mission reported massive unattended or inadequately addressed needs notably in the most remote and isolated severely affected areas. The most urgent needs are food, clean water and hygiene packs; health, care and psychological first aid (PFA); protection and education in emergencies. (ECHO, 26 Apr 2022)

The KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Government is planning to set up 4 396 temporary accommodation sites as from the end of this week to accommodate families that are currently accommodated in community halls, churches and schools. Giving the latest update on the response to the floods in the province on Sunday, KwaZulu-Natal Premier, Sihle Zikalala, said the construction of temporary residential units has started at Ilembe District, Ugu and eThekwini. Zikalala said the provincial government is finalising the assessment of some sites in Durban in terms of their suitability for construction. “We are encouraged by the support we are getting from the national government. An integrated approach involving three spheres of government is assisting to ensure speed and efficiency in the interventions,” Zikalala said. Zikalala said that although government has reprioritised R1 billion towards disaster relief interventions, the province needs more than R1.9 billion to complete the work. (Gov't of South Africa, 26 Apr 2022)

Tropical Storm Agaton - Apr 2022

Affected country: Philippines
Glide: TC-2022-000197-PHL

Tropical Depression MEGI (named "Agaton" in the Philippines) formed over the western Philippine Sea on 9 April as a tropical low and on 10 April, intensified as a tropical storm approaching Eastern Samar (Eastern Visayas Region, central Philippines). On 11 April at 2.00 UTC, its centre was located offshore over the coastal waters of Tanauan (Leyte Province, Eastern Visayas Region) in the Leyte Gulf with maximum sustained winds of 45 km/h (tropical depression). The non-stop rain has induced flooding in the provinces of Leyte and Southern Leyte in the Visayas, which has been severely affected by recent Super Typhoon Rai, and Northern Cotobato and Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM) areas. The local government units conduct needs assessment. According to the authorities, following the passage of MEGI, one person has died, and another is missing in Davao Region, while two people have been injured in Northern Mindanao. In addition, 15,326 people have been displaced and 136,400 affected across nine Regions. (ECHO, 11 Apr 2022)

The passage of Tropical Storm MEGI on 10-11 April over the Eastern Visayas Region (central-eastern Philippines) caused floods and landslides, which resulted in casualties and damage across the central and southern Philippines. According to the Philippines National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) and media sources, at least 25 people have died and several are missing, whilst many individuals reported sustained injuries. As of 12 April, there are approximately 19,360 displaced persons, mainly in the central and southern Philippines and 139,145 people have been affected. On 12 April at 0.00 UTC, the centre of MEGI was located near Marabut Municipality (Samar Province, Eastern Visayas), and it is moving eastwards as a Tropical Depression. (ECHO, 12 Apr 2022)

According to the Philippines National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) and media reports, at least 53 people have been killed in landslides and floods after Tropical Storm Megi devastated the Philippines. The death toll is expected to climb, as many people are reported missing and there are many individuals injured. As of 13 April, there are approximately 56,940 households displaced to either evacuation centres or to other family members' houses. The number of affected people has increased to 580,876. MEGI dissipated in the Philippine Sea on 12 April. (ECHO, 13 Apr 2022)

The number of deaths due to floods and landslides triggered by Tropical Storm MEGI reached 76 people (most of them in the Eastern Visayas Region) as reported by the Philippines National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC). In addition, 29 people are still missing, eight others have been injured, approximately 204,000 displaced and more than 920,700 affected. Furthermore, 354 houses have been damaged or destroyed, 270 roads and 12 bridges affected. (ECHO, 14 Apr 2022)

As of 18 April, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) reported that the impacts of Tropical Cyclone MEGI (local name: Agaton) in the Philippines has reached 584,100 families (2.01 million persons) affected, 172 deaths, 110 missing, 8 injured, 346,600 displaced, and damaged 10,400 houses, 309 roads, and 15 bridges. Damages to infrastructure amounting to 139,000 USD and agriculture amounting to 5 million USD. In response, 1.01 million USD worth of assistance have already been provided to those affected by the effects of Tropical Cyclone MEGI in the Philippines. As of reporting, a total of 16 cities/municipalities have declared a state of calamity related to the impacts of Tropical Cyclone MEGI. According to the NDRRMC, all operations are being managed at the regional level with support from the national. (AHA Centre, 18 Apr 2022)

The passage of Tropical Storm MEGI on 10-11 April over the Eastern Visayas Region (central-eastern Philippines) caused floods and landslides, which resulted in casualties and damage across the central and southern Philippines, particularly in the Visayas Region. According to the Philippines National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), 175 people have died (156 of which in Eastern Visayas), 110 are missing and 8 others have been injured. As per the latest reports of 19 April, there are approximately 307,500 people displaced, while more than 2 Million persons have been affected. About 11,300 houses, 58 road sections and eight bridges have been damaged or destroyed. A State of Calamity has been declared for 17 Cities/Municipalities in the central Philippines. The International Disaster Charter 756 was activated for the Philippines. (ECHO, 19 Apr 2022)

On 16 April, flash floods triggered by heavy rainfall have affected Davao del Norte Province (Davao Region, southern Philippines), leading to the displacement of almost 18,000 people, as reported by the ASEAN Disaster Information Network (ADINet). The same region and eight others located in the central-southern Philippines have been affected by floods and landslides due to the passage of Tropical Storm MEGI on 10-12 April, resulting in 178 fatalities, most of them in Eastern Visayas (155). In addition, according to national authorities, as of 20 April, 111 people are still missing, almost 180,000 have been displaced, and more than 2,100,000 affected. (ECHO, 21 Apr 2022)

About 72,300 remain displaced across six affected regions from Tropical Storm Megi/ Agaton, with the displaced people staying either in evacuation centers or with their relatives. Assessment findings by government agencies indicate that 2,400 houses were destroyed and 14,100 houses incurred damages. The storm also affected 73,800 farmers and 32,600 hectares of agricultural land were damaged, resulting in the loss of 90,800 metric tons of agricultural produce with an estimated cost of US$62 million. The Government confirmed that 212 people died, mostly due to rain-induced landslides, with 132 people still missing. OCHA and WFP conducted a rapid needs assessment in Leyte province and met with local authorities to discuss support needs. According to the assessment findings, affected people expressed their needs for food, water, non-food items (such as sleeping kits, kitchen kits, hygiene kits) as they lost most of their belongings; mental health and psychosocial support to deal with the trauma of surviving the landslides; and for early recovery source of livelihoods such as boats for those living in the coastal communities. (OCHA, 25 Apr 2022)

DR Congo: Plague Outbreak - Apr 2022

Affected country: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Glide: EP-2022-000202-COD

On 4 April 2022, the Provincial Health Division (DPS) of the province of Ituri declared a resurgence of the Bubonic Plague epidemic in the health zone of Rethy, in the territory of Djugu. According to the authorities, the history of this disease in the Rethy health zone goes back to more than 9 outbreaks, including this one. The eighth one dates back to January 2022 in the UKETHA health area. On 7 April 2022, the epidemiological situation covering 26 March to 4 April was as follows from DPS data: 31 notified cases of which only 15 have been tested, 2 deaths and nearly 2,000 contacts listed in the absence of local reactivity. The epicenter of the plague disease is in the Health Areas of Lokpa, Rassia, and Uketha, where the 3 confirmed cases are located. These three health areas are in the Rethy health zone, Djugu territory, in ITURI Province.

Between 4 and 16 April 2022, 27 suspected cases in addition to the above were notified by the Lokpa Health Centre but in the absence of testing, the confirmation of cases remains very low and the level of vulnerability is underestimated. The absence of partners in the Rethy Health Zone apart from the local branch of the DRC Red Cross, MEDAIR, and MALTESER, as well as the lack of materials, greatly limits the response and the establishment of effective disease control and containment system.

This health zone of Rethy is in a permanent state of insecurity, which is at the root of the lack of partners and is subject to the internal displacement of the population. Populations fled Rethy to Fataki in 2021 following clashes from November to December and then from Fataki to Rethy following attacks in Rethy between armed groups in February 2022. There is a likelihood that population flows are linked to cases and/or influence the spread of the disease. In the Ngri Mandefu Health areas, for example, 8,306 were displaced to the Mbr'bu, Bale, and Gudjo Health Areas, following clashes between the military and armed men in Dhera locality on 30 March. In total, the Rethy Health Zone has 60,875 IDPs from other health areas according to an OCHA report of 7 March 2022, and 59,921 people who had left Rethy and have now returned. (IFRC, 28 Apr 2022)

Somalia: Urban Fire Incident - Apr 2022

Affected country: Somalia
Glide: FR-2022-000191-SOM

A huge fire broke out in the biggest market (Waaheen) of Hargeisa on the evening of 01 April 2022. The fire was so powerful that the Somaliland Fire Protection could only control it 16 hours after, at noon of April 02, with the support of the Ethiopia Somali region fire department. According to the Somaliland fire protection, this was the worst fire experienced in decades [...] As of April 03, SRCS together with the government estimates almost 2,000 shops and stalls were completely ravaged by the fire, 100 buildings destroyed, and some 50 suffering extensive damage. Most houses in the nearby area were made of light materials e.g iron sheets, tarpaulins, etc, amidst some tall concrete buildings. 62 people were rescued from the fire and 28 people were severely injured [...] Fortunately, no death toll was reported as the fire happened on a weekend. Cumulative damage is still to be confirmed with a thorough assessment, but estimations from SRCS and the government (based on the initial rapid assessment) put the number of affected people at over 12,000. This fire, in the heart of Hargeisa and Somaliland's economic centre, has caused immense property and financial loss – estimated at around 1,5-2 billion USD as reported by the mayor of Hargeisa who is a member of the national response committee. Some 10,000 people lost their livelihoods, and many others will be indirectly affected by the trade disruption (farmers, suppliers, traders, among others). (IFRC, 7 Apr 2022)

Sri Lanka: Food Security Crisis - Apr 2022

Affected country: Sri Lanka
Glide: CE-2022-000199-LKA

The significant reduction in agricultural production in Sri Lanka, compounded by the rising prices of fuel and basic food items, have made food unaffordable for a segment of the population, and the government has forecasted food shortages during the next months. It is estimated that only 24 per cent of the usually worked land has been cultivated for the upcoming season. Surveys indicate that up to 70 per cent of households have had to reduce food consumption as food prices have reportedly increased by 73 per cent in the last two years.

Hospitals in the country report shortages of essential medicines and other health items, while frequent power outages affect the delivery of health services. The shortage of medicines has paralyzed about 50 per cent of medical operations in the country. The multi-dimensional crisis in Sri Lanka has inevitably brought more protection issues to the pre-existing chronic inequalities experienced by its people. An estimated 5.7 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance in 25 districts across the country. (OCHA, 9 Jun 2022)

The United Nations has launched a US$47.2 million plan for the period June through September, to respond to the Government’s request for support. The Government announced a two-week shutdown of government services and schools in Colombo to reduce the number of people taking private and public transportation as fuel stocks are predicted to run out in five days. In health, currently close to 200 essential medicines are now out of stock, with a predicted shortage of another 163 critical over the next two to three months. Additionally, over 2,700 essential surgical and more than 250 regular laboratory items are also out of stock. Due to power cuts and the lack of fuel to operate generators, many hospitals have had to postpone non-urgent surgeries and procedures. WFP has activated an emergency response to the food crisis, focusing on urgent programmes to save lives and mitigate growing food insecurity among 3 million of the most vulnerable people of Sri Lanka from June through December 2022. (WFP, 22 Jun 2022)

Ecuador: Earthquake - Mar 2022

Affected country: Ecuador
Glide: EQ-2022-000194-ECU

On 26 March, a 6.0-magnitude earthquake was recorded in Ecuador at approximately 11:28 pm. According to Special Seismic Report 2022-001 issued by the Geophysics Institute (IGEPN), the epicentre was located off the coast of Esmeraldas at a depth of 28 km. After a few days, it became evident that the number of affected families continued to increase in different neighbourhoods, as many houses already had previous structural damage from the 2016 earthquake which was worsened by this earthquake. The number of people affected by the earthquake continues to increase on a daily basis. As per Situation Report No. 17, (issued on 6 April 2022 by the National Risk Management Service), 4,097 people have haven reported to be affected mainly in rural parishes of Esmeralda including Tabiazo, Tachina, San Mateo, Vuelta Larga, Chinca, Camarones in Esmeraldas canton, as well as in Quingüe and Daule de Muisne, Súa Atacames. Additionally, people have been reported to be affected in nearby provinces including Cotopaxi, Guayas, Imbabura, Los Ríos, Manabí, Pichincha, Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, and Tungurahua. (IFRC, 12 Apr 2022)

A 5.8 magnitude earthquake occurred in Esmeralda on 26 March, affecting 15,235 people, including 6,984 severely. As a part of immediate response efforts in April, WFP and the Government of Ecuador coordinated to deliver USD 240 vouchers to 214 households (1,440 people). WFP and the Government held an event on 11 April to officialize the voucher delivery. (WFP, 20 May 2022)