Unidad de Investigación en Emergencia y Desastre (UIED)

29 de enero de 2022
Erasmus Mundus Master in Public Health in Disasters



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Unidad de Investigación en Emergencia y Desastre. Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud. 7ª Planta
Campus del Cristo
33006 Oviedo - España
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Unidad de Investigación en Emergencia y Desastre (UIED)

Desastres activos

Peru: Oil Spill - Jan 2022

Affected country: Peru
Glide: AC-2022-000151-PER

The Government of Peru has formally declared an environmental emergency following a 15 January oil spill at a Repsol-owned refinery near the Ventanilla district to the north of the Lima metropolitan region. The spill, estimated to be of about 6,000 barrels, has affected more than 700 hectares of water and 180 hectares of coastline, and with currents pushing the oil north, it continues to cause more environmental damage and threatens the health and livelihoods of nearby coastal communities. Government response to the disaster is involving several different public offices, while Repsol reports they have deployed 1,800 people to respond to the refinery’s spill and specialized machinery to help contain further spread. Following the Government’s request for UN support, a team of personnel from OCHA, the OCHA and UN Environment Programme (UNEP)-led Joint Environment Unit (JEU), UN Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) and technical experts identified by the JEU is deploying to provide analysis and recommendations on disaster response and coordination. (OCHA, 24 Jan 2022)

Tropical Storm Ana - Jan 2022

Affected countries: Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe
Glide: ST-2022-000088-MOZ

A low-pressure system formed in the south-west part of the Indian Ocean over the past days, crossing over Madagascar on 22 January.The system entered the Mozambique channel on 23 January and evolved into a moderate tropical storm, named Ana, making landfall in Nampula province on 24 January. Tropical storm Ana, whose force has already been perceived in some provinces, could cause windspeeds up to 100km/h and rains up to 200mm/24h, potentially impacting the northern and central provinces of Nampula, Zambezia, Sofala, Manica, Tete, Niassa, and Cabo Delgado. Over the coming day, heavy rains and strong winds could cause population displacements, flooding and damages to public and private infrastructures. An estimated 500,000 people may be impacted across the three provinces of Nampula, Zambezia and Sofala, including 120,000 women and girls of reproductive age (aged 10-49) and 14,000 pregnant women, according to national authorities. (OCHA, 24 Jan 2022)

Tropical storm Ana made landfall in Angoche district, Nampula province on 24 January and subsequently headed westwards, affecting the northern part of Zambezia province and the southern part of Tete province [,,,] According to INGD, the storm already resulted in some 4,000 people affected, 66 people injured and five people killed. A total of 546 private houses were also partially destroyed while 115 were totally destroyed. Moreover, one health center and 16 classrooms were affected. On 25 January, a general power cut has been reported in the provinces of Zambezia, Nampula, and Cabo Delgado, following damages caused on the main electricity line. In Tete province, the bridge over the Rovubue river, between Tete Sede and Moaztize, collapsed due to the heavy flow of water. In Nampula, the connection between Nampula Sede and Angoche has been interrupted due to the overflow of the Luazi River. In Zambezia, the Licungo River exceeded the alert level, causing moderate to high floods in the districts of Mocuba, Maganja da Costa, and Namacurra. Moreover, several roads are under the water and two bridges have been destroyed between Mocuba and Lugela. Over the past 24 hours, tropical storm Ana turned into a tropical depression system, according to the National Institute of Meteorology (INAM). However, serious concerns remain about widespread floods, displacements, damages to critical public infrastructures, private houses as well as the interruption of basic services, as heavy rains and strong winds continue to hit. (OCHA, 25 Jan 2022)

Syria: Cold Wave - Jan 2022

Affected country: Syrian Arab Republic
Glide: CW-2022-000067-SYR

Heavy snowfall affected north-west Syria on 18 January, damaging displacement sites, tents and people’s belongings. According to preliminary reports, 22 sites in Aleppo Governorate (mainly Afrin and Azaz districts) and nine sites in Idleb Governorate (mainly Harim district) were affected. As of 19 January, 362 tents were reported damaged and 2,124 individuals (429 families) affected. Abraz Camp in Ma’btali subdistrict in Afrin was badly affected and families were evacuated to safer shelter, including the camp’s administrative building, a nearby school and Abraz village [...] The most pressing needs are reopening of the roads for uninterrupted access to the sites, moving the affected persons to safe places, securing means for heating, replacing destroyed tents, providing ready-to-eat meals and winter clothes for children and families. (OCHA, 20 Jan 2022)

The Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) cluster reported that across Idleb and Aleppo governorates there has been heavy snowfall in 157 sites, mainly in Afrin, Azaz and Harim districts. Heavy rain caused flooding in 66 sites, particularly in Harim and Idleb districts. Strong winds affected four sites in Azaz and Maaret Tamsrin districts in Aleppo and Idleb. So far, 545 tents have been reported destroyed and 9,125 tents damaged by snowfall, floods and winds, along with belongings of displaced people. All major public roads in the affected locations in Idleb and Aleppo governorates are open, including the Raju – Afrin road. Keeping the roads open for uninterrupted access to displacement sites is critical. Relocation of affected households to safer locations, provision of heating materials and food items and replacing damaged tents are urgently needed. (OCHA, 25 Jan 2022)

Madagascar: Floods and Landslides - Jan 2022

Affected country: Madagascar
Glide: ST-2022-000138-MDG

Intense rainfall caused by two different tropical weather systems which have impacted Madagascar over the last week has driven flooding, landslides, destruction of infrastructure and loss of life, particularly affecting the country’s capitalAntananarivo, and other areas of Analamanga Region, in the centre of the country. The rains were initially driven by an Intertropical Convergence Zone around 17 January and increased when a Tropical Depression made landfall in the east of the country on 22 January and exited the other side of the island on 23 January. (OCHA, 24 Jan 2022)

Afghanistan: Earthquake - Jan 2022

Affected country: Afghanistan
Glide: EQ-2022-000008-AFG

A 5.3 magnitude earthquake struck in Qadis District, Badghis Province in the Western Region of Afghanistan at 16:10 local time (UTC+4:30) on 17 January 2022. The earthquake was preceded by a smaller earthquake and was felt in Badghis, Ghor and Hirat Provinces. The earthquake reportedly resulted in human casualties and damages to homes and infrastructure in Qadis District, Badghis Province […] Initial reports indicate that 26 people were reportedly killed, four people injured, and hundreds of houses were damaged or destroyed. Heavy rains in the area prior to the earthquake reportedly rendered mud brick houses more vulnerable to damage. (OCHA, 18 Jan 2022)

The preliminary estimate by the inter-agency team is that up to 1,000 houses were damaged or destroyed by the earthquake. According to the information received from the local sources, the number of deaths due to the earthquake have risen to 27 people. People in affected areas are using water wells that are unsafe. In Badrawak village, there are concerns for the potential of landslides on hills on both sides of the community with a population of 2,520 people (360 families). On 20 January, another earthquake struck in the areas, leading to the death of one person. Residents in the area remain very concerned about further earthquakes. Many are too afraid of going into their homes and are currently living under the makeshifts/traditional tents in cold weather conditions. As of 20 January, the joint assessment team has assessed 742 families and identified 434 families requiring humanitarian aid, while further assessments are ongoing within the affected areas. (OCHA, 21 Jan 2022)

Due to the winter season, the areas affected had experienced rain for two days before the initial earthquake, with temperatures below 10 degrees Celsius, compromising the structural integrity of the building structures, which are mostly made from mud. Those who have either lost their houses or have had their houses damaged by the earthquake face an extreme environment. At the same time, they are also coping with a lack of access to food, winter supplies, and an economic downturn. The anticipated needs of the affected population, which are currently being assessed and confirmed are food, clean water, shelter, sanitation facilities, hygiene items and household items. As of 22 January, based on the latest update, 1,254 households were assessed by the joint assessment team, out of which 834 households were identified for assistance. (IFRC, 27 Jan 2022)

Tonga: Volcanic Eruption and Tsunami - Jan 2022

Affected countries: Fiji, Japan, Peru, Samoa, Tonga
Glide: VO-2022-000005-TON

A large eruption of the Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha-apai underwater volcano in the evening of 15 January (at 17:26 local time) caused a tsunami and ash fall in Tonga (total pop. 105,000 people). The volcanic eruption has continued throughout the day with satellite imagery indicating a 5km wide plume of ash, steam and gas rising into the air 20km above the volcano. The ash plume was observed moving northeast over the islands of Ha’apai and is currently proceeding in a westerly direction away from Tonga. The eruption was one of the biggest in Tonga in the past 30 years. During the initial eight-minutes, it was so violent it could be heard as "loud thunder sounds" in Fiji, more than 800km away. (OCHA, 16 Jan 2022)

No additional eruptions were recorded since yesterday’s update. However, further volcanic activity cannot be ruled out. The ash cloud has slowly moved on in a north-westerly direction. Elsewhere in the Pacific (Fiji, Samoa, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands) tsunami warnings have been lifted and no serious impact has been reported so far apart from some limited flooding [..] For Tonga, the tsunami of Saturday has caused yet to be detailed damage of buildings and infrastructure. Nuku’alofa, Tonga’s capital, is covered with a two-centimetre-thick layer of volcanic ash and dust. However, the situation in the city is calm and stable and first clean-up efforts are being made. Nuku’alofa’s waterfront is seriously damaged with rocks and debris pushed inland by the tsunami. Overall, there appears to be significant infrastructural damage around Tongatapu, the main island. There had been no contact from the Ha’apai Group of islands with particular concern about two small low-lying islands – Mango and Fonoi. An active distress beacon had been detected from Mango. (OCHA, 17 Jan 2022)

An initial assessment from the Government of Tonga is that 100 houses were damaged and 50 destroyed in Tongatapu. No evacuation centres are open in Tongatapu, the people who were displaced (numbers not confirmed as of now) are staying with extended families. There are 89 people in evacuation centres in ‘Eua. Information from outer islands is still very scarce. In Ha’apai and Vava’u islands, communication lines remain down and concerns exist regarding damage to low lying island in this group. Three deaths have been recorded so far. Preliminary information from the Tongan Ministry of Agriculture indicates that the damage in the agricultural sector, and particularly of root crops, is less severe than initially feared. Due to thick ash cover is thicker than anticipated (between 5 and 10 cm) and will need more time to be cleared away. Planned relief flights (from Australia and New Zealand, for the time being) are on stand-by. (OCHA, 18 Jan 2022)

On 19 January, the Government of Tonga issued a State of Emergency. To date, there are three confirmed fatalities: one British national; a female from Mango Island; and a male from Nomuka Island. The government deployed two vessels with health teams and water, food and tents to the Ha’apai group where the islands of Mango, Fonoifua and Nomuka have been impacted. All houses were destroyed on Mango island; only two houses remain on Fonoifua island and Nomuka island experienced extensive damage. According to the government, evacuation of Mango and Fonoifua islands to Nomuka island is underway. As for destruction in the capital Nuku’alofa, the government announced that 21 houses were completely damaged and 35 severely damaged in parts of the western side of Tongatapu including Kanokupolu. Residents had been evacuated to evacuation centers and supplied with relief items. In the central district, Kolomotu’a, eight houses were completely damaged and 20 severely. On the island of ‘Eua, two houses were completely damaged and 45 severely damaged. Water supplies have been seriously affected by volcanic ash. Government efforts have been made to ensure the continuity of the supply of safe drinking water. Tonga’s cluster system has been activated and is compiling reports on needs to be addressed. (OCHA, 19 Jan 2022)

On 19 January, the UN Resident Coordinator received a request from the Government of Tonga for urgent assistance in the wake of the volcanic eruption and the impact of the following tsunami and volcanic ash it generated. There are still serious concerns about access to safe water throughout the island nation, and concerns about the quality of groundwater in Tongatapu. Data suggest that some 50,000 people are affected and access to drinking water remains one of the highest priorities. The capital’s water supply is safe to drink but most people now rely on bottled water. It is estimated that some 12,000 households have been affected as all agricultural sectors (crops, livestock, fisheries) suffered substantially. Of particular concern is the effect of ashfall on crops along with saltwater intrusion and the potential of acid rain. It is further estimated that about 60 – 70 percent of livestock-rearing households either had livestock perished, experienced damage to grazing land, or have contaminated water supplies. As regards to Health, the hospital and the national pharmacy store in the capital are intact and fully functioning. There are some reports of damage to some health centres in Tongatapu, ‘Eua and Ha’apai. The main issue going forward is monitoring the risk of infectious diseases through surveillance and the actions underway by the WASH sector. (OCHA, 20 Jan 2022)

Ten days on from the violent eruption of the Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha’apai underwater volcano, the Government of Tonga continues to provide relief in the most-affected islands while assessing damage and needs. The Government of Tonga and humanitarian partners report that the entire population of Tonga (approx. 105,000 people) have been impacted and that about 84,000 people (some 84% of the population) have been directly affected. Initial assessment data indicate that about 240 houses have been damaged or destroyed. Some 100 houses have been damaged or destroyed on Tongatapu and 50 houses on ‘Eua alone. Tonga’s key challenges continue to be access to safe water, ash clearance and ensuring food security. The Pacific Humanitarian Team is scaling up the support based on the request from the Government and based on the assessment of needs. (OCHA, 25 Jan 2022)

Tropical Cyclone Cody - Jan 2022

Affected country: Fiji
Glide: TC-2022-000007-FJI

Tropical Disturbance TD03F intensified into a Tropical Depression on 8 January 2022. By 10 January, it had transformed into the category 1 Tropical Cyclone Cody, bringing significant rain affecting the whole of Fiji. [...] The high level of precipitation over the Fiji group between 8-15 January has been significant and made most of the western and central divisions water-logged and highly susceptible to flooding. Extensive flooding in the Western region has also affected some communities in the Central and Eastern divisions. Water levels were slow to subside in some areas due to saturated land. (IFRC, 19 Jan 2022)

Iran: Floods - Jan 2022

Affected country: Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Glide: FL-2022-000002-IRN

According to the Iranian Meteorological Organization, heavy rainfalls with thunderstorms started on 1 January 2022 in most Iranian provinces and lasted four days. Over 80,000 people were affected in 20 provinces. The most affected provinces are Sistan Baluchestan (in the south), Hormozgan (in the east), Kerman and Fars, Bushehr, and Khuzestan. The floods resulted in damages to power supply, roads/access/infrastructure, agricultural lands, bridges, domestic animal husbandry, houses/residential buildings, and drinking water supply schemes. The heavy flash flood resulted in the death of ten people in the counties of Chabahar, and Mehrestan in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Darab, Lamerd, and Beyram in Fars Province and Sirjan in Kerman Province.

As a result of the floods, transportation has been halted, and relief supplies have been delivered to flood-affected cities by IRCS air rescue choppers. Affected people were evacuated to safe areas by IRCS rescuers. Outpatient services were provided to injured people, and those in need were transported to medical centers. In addition to rescue and relief efforts, aid workers pumped water out of 570 houses and recovered 290 vehicles. The worst-hit area is south of Sistan Baluchestan. While the operation in south Kerman has been completed, the operation in eastern Hormozgan is still ongoing. (IFRC, 14 Jan 2022)

Sao Tome and Principe: Floods and Landslides - Dec 2021

Affected country: Sao Tome and Principe
Glide: FL-2021-000213-STP

Rainfall in 2021 in Sao Tome and Principe peaked between 27 and 28 December 2021, causing the water levels of the country’s rivers to rise. In less than 24 hours, the rain that fell on the archipelago caused chaos in the capital city and in several other parts of the country, especially areas through which streams run and next to rivers. According to the country's Meteorological Institute, the country had not seen such heavy rainfall in over 30 years. [...] On 30 December 2021, the government of Sao Tome declared a state of disaster due to the damage caused and appealed for international aid during a meeting attended by international actors in the country and embassies. (IFRC, 13 Jan 2022)

Malaysia: Flash Floods - Dec 2021

Affected country: Malaysia
Glide: FL-2021-000209-MYS

The newly formed Tropical Depression TWENTYNINE made landfall in an area in Kemaman District (southern Terengganu State, north-eastern Peninsular Malaysia) in the late evening of 16 December, and of 17 December at 0.00 UTC [...] According to [AHA Centre], more than 380 people have been displaced to evacuation centres in Terengganu and Kelantan States. (ECHO, 17 Dec 2021)

According to media reports, at least two people died (one in Pahang and another in Terengganu States). The Malaysian National Disaster Command Centre (NDCC) reports 37,670 people (of which 18,119 in Selangor and 15,049 in Pehang States) displaced in 388 evacuations centres across eights States. Floodwaters have damaged a number of buildings, road and infrastructure, including three water treatment plants in Selangor. (ECHO, 20 Dec 2021)

The Malaysia’s Agensi Pengurusan Bencana (NADMA) has reported that 33 districts in eight states across Peninsular Malaysia (Perak, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Kelantan, Terengganu, and Pahang) are affected by floods [...] Around 70,000 people are directly impacted, with 67,629 persons (18,650 households) displaced in 470 evacuation centres. As of 23 December, 37 deaths have been reported, with some bodies still missing. [...] This flooding also significantly impacted people's livelihoods, hitting the state of Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur hard, where the population density is highest in the country, and prolonged flooding is not the norm. Unofficial estimates place the economic losses at around USD 200 million. Dozens of roads and highways remain closed. There have been unscheduled water cuts and disruptions to the electricity supply. Search and rescue have been hampered by a lack of assets (boats and other vessels) to navigate through the waterways formed around high-density residential areas near low-lying flood basins, exacerbated by coordination issues between authorities. The situation is worsened in low-cost housing areas, where residents of single-storey linked houses do not have the option of moving themselves and their assets to the upper floors. There have been medical evacuations as the elderly and people with chronic diseases suffered from lack of food, running water, disrupted electricity supply and shortage of medication. (IFRC, 27 Dec 2021)

Since mid-December, floods and landslides caused by heavy rainfall have been affecting Malaysia, with an important impact on the local population. According to media reports, up to 50 people have died (of which 25 in Selangor, 21 in Pahang and four in Kelantan) and two others are missing. As of 3 January, the Malaysia National Disaster Management Agency (NADMA) confirms that the States of Kelantan, Terengganu, Selangor, Pahang, Johor, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan and Sabah are still affected by floods, with 14,459 individuals taking shelter at 191 evacuation centres. (ECHO, 3 Jan 2022)

Iraq: Flash Floods - Dec 2021

Affected country: Iraq
Glide: FL-2021-000208-IRQ

On 17 December 2021, heavy rainfalls hit the country's northern Kurdish region. The heavy rains overnight caused a flash flood in Erbil, the region’s capital, and Kirkuk Governorate, located in Northern Iraq. The incident caused widespread damage to houses, infrastructure, and vehicles. Muddy water swept into people’s homes in Erbil's Daratu, Qushtapa, Shamamk, Zhyan, Roshinbiri, and Bahrka neighbourhoods in the early hours of the morning, forcing individuals out of their houses. According to the Kurdish region government on 19 December, 14 people were reported dead by the floods and more than 7,000 people are affected, while IRCS carried further rapid assessments to confirm with the families. More are feared missing while search and rescue operations are ongoing. [...] The disastrous heavy rains came at a time when Iraq was suffering with severe droughts, where seven million Iraqis have been already affected and most of the agricultural land is completely affected by the droughts spell and left people with more vulnerabilities. [...] Iraq is particularly vulnerable to the effects of extreme weather patterns, most likely caused by climate change due to its underdeveloped infrastructure. More heavy rain is expected in the coming days, according to the Regional Meteorology Department. (IFRC, 27 Dec 2021)

Haiti: Fuel Truck Explosion - Dec 2021

Affected country: Haiti
Glide: AC-2021-000203-HTI

During the night of 13 to 14 December, a tanker truck loaded with fuel overturned, under circumstances which are still unclear, at the eastern entrance to Cap-Haitien, Haiti’s second largest city, between the roundabout at Samari and Pont Grand-Bois. Local residents were rushing to retrieve the fuel when the truck exploded. A precise death toll is not available at this stage. According to the latest figures published by the local authorities, 61 people were killed in the fire, 47 more suffered burn injuries of varying degrees (20 with severe third-degree burns, 27 with light first-degree burns). Vehicles, motorcycles and some 20 houses in the vicinity caught fire as a result of the explosion raising fears of a higher eventual death toll. National authorities are currently assessing the exact number of people injured or killed, especially in the fire-affected houses. (OCHA, 14 Dec 2021)

Typhoon Rai - Dec 2021

Affected countries: China, Micronesia (Federated States of), Palau, Philippines
Glide: TC-2021-000202-PHL

The newly formed tropical depression TWENTYEIGHT is moving westwards over the western Pacific. On 13 December, at 0.00 UTC, its centre was located about 350 km south-east of Sorol Island (Caroline Islands, Federated States of Micronesia), and 810 km south-east of Palau, with maximum sustained winds of 45 km/h. In the morning of 13 December, TWENTYEIGHT is forecast to strengthen to a tropical storm, as it continues westwards over the Pacific Ocean, passing south of Sorol. (ECHO, 13 Dec 2021)

On 15 December, Typhoon Rai (locally named Odette) further intensified and became of typhoon strength while it continued to move west northwestward. According to the Philippines weather bureau, PAGASA, Typhoon Rai continues to gain strength, currently packing maximum winds of 130 km/h and gustiness of up to 160 km/h and is expected to make landfall in the vicinity of Surigao Provinces or southern portion of Eastern Visayas late on Thursday,16 December with high winds up to 155 km/h. The typhoon is forecasted to make landfall in vicinity of CARAGA or Eastern Visayas, then move slightly north westward and cross several provinces in Central and Western Visayas regions before emerging over the Sulu Sea on Friday. Typhoon Rai’s sustained winds may reach its peak intensity of 155 km/h before landfall [...] Areas along the typhoon’s track will experience torrential to intense rains and strong gale winds with is a high risk of wind damage, rain-induced landslides, flash floods and flooding, particularly in areas that experienced significant antecedent rainfall earlier in December. (OCHA, 15 Dec 2021)

The government pre-emptively evacuated over 330,000 people in Northeastern Mindanao and Visayas ahead of a potentially devasting impact of the Super Typhoon Rai/Odette. Needs assessments ongoing but hampered by flooded and blocked roads and interruption of other lifelines [...] According to the initial reports of the National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (NDRRMC) and the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), over 330,000 people have been pre-emptively evacuated, 674 evacuation centers are open and as of now one 1 death and 2 injured are reported. The onslaught of a typhoon cut essential lifelines, leaving 63 cities and municipalities without electricity, affecting 73 seaports and cancelling over 160 domestic and international flights. (OCHA, 17 Dec 2021)

Typhoon Rai made initial landfall in Siargao Island, province of Surigao del Norte in Caraga region, northern Mindanao on 16 December 2021. It carried gusts up to 270 km/h with maximum sustained winds of 195 km/h near the centre making it the strongest storm to make landfall in the Philippines this year. The trail of the Typhoon Rai crossed the Philippine archipelago from Caraga to Eastern and Central Visayas and Palawan. [...] The latest government figures indicate 130,128 families or 477,614 people affected in 1,417 barangays in Regions V, VI, VII, VIII, X, XI, Caraga and MIMAROPA [...]. Due to power disruptions and intermittent signals, it has been challenging to obtain further details from the ground. Hence, these reported numbers are expected to increase significantly. Pre-emptively 332,855 people were evacuated, and 1,603 evacuation centres hosted 77,494 families (289,049 individuals). Initial estimated number of people living in the affected areas is 15.9 million, of which 9.1 million people are live in the worst affected areas (AHA Center). (IFRC, 18 Dec 2021)

As of 21 December, a total of 2.4 million people are affected across 10 regions in 4,293 barangays or villages. Around 684,000 displaced people are reported in five regions with 440,000 people in evacuation centers. A total of 139,000 houses have been damaged, out of which 53,800 are totally damaged. (OCHA, 21 Dec 2021)

As of 27 December, a total of 4.6 million people are affected across 10 regions in 6,057 barangays or villages. Around 571,000 displaced people are reported in five regions with 315,000 people in evacuation centers. A total of 405,000 houses have been damaged, out of which 127,800 are totally damaged. (OCHA, 27 Dec 2021)

To date, over 6.2 million people were affected across 10 regions. About 580,000 of them remain displaced with 356,000 people staying in evacuation centres and 227,000 people staying with host families or friends. Latest death count has totalled to 397. Urgent needs are food and non-food items (NFIs), clean water and sanitation facilities, shelter, hygiene kits, medical supplies and restoration of livelihoods. As per NDRRMC report on 30 December, 161 cities/municipalities have restored power out of 284 that experienced power outage or interruptions. While 79 cities/municipalities have restored communication lines out of 189 that experienced interrupted services. Estimated agricultural damages include 80,000 hectares of crops, 1.2 million livestock and poultry and 5,024 agricultural infrastructure and equipment costing about Php 5.5 billion (or $108 million). (OCHA, 30 Dec 2021)

As of 3 January 2022, a total of 6.8 million people are affected across 11 regions in 6,794 barangays or villages. Around 539,000 displaced people are reported in five regions with 349,000 people still in evacuation centers. A total of 830,000 houses have been damaged, out of which 240,000 are totally damaged. Response clusters have been activated and are being convened under the leadership of the relevant government line agencies. OCHA is supporting overall coordination of the Humanitarian Country Team in responding to most urgent needs in Caraga and Region VIII and has released a Humanitarian Needs and Priorities document requesting $107.2 million for the next 6 months. (OCHA, 3 Jan 2022)

The humanitarian response continues three weeks since the landfall of super typhoon Rai, which is estimated to have damaged 1,234,079 houses (339,303 totally damaged; 894,776 partially damaged). According to Government report, 170,589 displaced people remain in 1,025 evacuation centers (ECs) in six regions. Priority concerns are access to electricity, potable water, and WASH facilities. The displaced people are also at higher risk of COVID-19 infection because of overcrowding in evacuation centers. The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) has distributed US$10 million worth of assistance – including food, water and non-food items, with additional reserves of $17 million in funding and in-kind assistance available in warehouses. Since the launch of the Humanitarian Needs and Priorities (HNP), funding received is at $20.6 million (or 19.2 per cent) within the HNP and another $28.6 million outside the HNP. Funding received for HNP includes a $12 million from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) which has been allocated to IOM, UNICEF, WFP and UNFPA. (OCHA, 10 Jan 2022)

As of 13 January 2022, a total of 8 million people are affected across 11 regions in 8,779 barangays or villages. Around 200,000 displaced people are reported in five regions with 160,000 people still in evacuation centers. A total of 1,400,000 houses have been damaged, out of which 400,000 are destroyed. Due to a surge in COVID-19 cases, the pandemic continues to threaten public health and safety and is also creating multiple operational challenges for the humanitarian response. Women and girls continue to face disproportional impacts due to limited access to sexual and reproductive health services, increased risk to gender-based violence, and disruptions in protection services. Children are at risk of falling behind due to school closures (6,200 classrooms are damaged nationwide) and increasing food insecurity resulting in malnutrition. (OCHA, 13 Jan 2022)

One month on, families are still reeling from the storm’s effects and struggling to pick up the pieces of their lives. Meanwhile, a country-wide COVID-19 surge and heavy rains linked to La Niña are severely hampering the response in the Caraga region in north-eastern Mindanao, and the Leyte and Southern Leyte provinces of the Visayas islands. While many of the displaced people have returned home, 160,000 people remain in evacuation centres. Hospitals are at limited capacity and many health facilities have been damaged, which include COVID and birthing facilities. There are over four million women and girls of reproductive age in the affected areas with 162,000 believed to be pregnant. Many women and girls have been left without access to reproductive health support. This will be further worsened by the current COVID-19 surge. The typhoon has further impacted the already grim malnutrition rates in the CARAGA and Eastern Visayas areas. In the CARAGA region, 53 per cent of families already couldn’t afford a nutritious meal and in Eastern Visayas 42 per cent of children were stunted. 135,000 students in 835 schools are affected in the Caraga region alone. The damages to farmland has been catastrophic with over 440,000 hectares of farmland affected. hectares of farmland affected. With many of the affected in small islands and geographically isolated areas, this disaster has presented many logistical challenges to get aid to those most in need. (OCHA, 20 Jan 2022)

As of 20 January, the number of assessed damaged houses has increased to 1,570,240 houses. Of these, 423,492 are completely destroyed with the most affected provinces are Cebu, Bohol (region VII) and Surigao del Norte (region XIII) accounting for 61% of destroyed homes. In Palawan, government reports have shown 77,000 houses are damaged or destroyed which housed over 385,000 individuals. However, the damage from the Typhoon goes well beyond the direct impact to housing and sanitation facilitates, to disruptions to livelihoods, infrastructure and massively increased protection risks in the most vulnerable communities. Over 220 health facilities have been damaged, and access to others is disrupted, further complicated by the severity of the COVID-19 outbreak over the past month. In terms of impact to the agriculture sector, the damage and losses report from the Department of Agriculture (DA) as of 18 January 2022 showed that the total value of damages and losses is at over US$261 million. Partners issued a preliminary assessment on labor and employment indicating that almost 2.2 million workers are estimated to have been directly impacted. Across all affected regions, understanding and assessment of complex protection concerns related to disability, GBV, sexual and reproductive health and other vulnerabilities, especially among adolescents, girls and women, and other vulnerabilities remain under-assessed. Based on the report from the Philippine National Police Regional Women and Children Protection Desk CARAGA, there is a potential increase in GBV. (OCHA, 24 Jan 2021)

South Africa: Severe Thunderstorms - Dec 2021

Affected country: South Africa
Glide: OT-2021-000210-ZAF

In the early hours of the 12th of December, heavy thunderstorms hit Mthatha town, in the OR Tambo district of the Eastern Cape province. Media reports indicated a total death toll of 6 people, more than 27 people hospitalized and hundreds left homeless. As the week progressed, Amathole, Buffalo city, Chris Hani, Alfred Nzou and Joe Gqabi surrounding districts were also impacted by thunderstorms. Reports further stipulated that over 1,000 homes were damaged, with likely more being affected. To date, through on-going joint assessments by the Provincial Disaster Management Centre (PDMC), local municipalities and other stakeholders inclusive of the South African Red Cross Society (SARCS), 1,762 households (8,810 people) have been recorded to adversely affected. Some affected populations’ homes have been severely damaged or destroyed with others being partially damaged, posing the risk of unsafe buildings especially with continuous heavy rains still experienced in affected areas. [...] In total there are 450 families that are accommodated in community halls and schools across three districts (OR Tambo; Amathole and Alfred Nzou). [...] The thunderstorm has greatly affected health, WASH, food security and livelihoods sectors and people are struggling to cope will ripple effects which include trauma, stress, limited hygiene materials and food insecurities. (IFRC, 28 Dec 2021)

Heavy rain has been affecting Eastern Cape Province (south-eastern South Africa) over the past few days, causing floods and resulting in casualties and damage. According to media reports, at least ten people died, hundreds of people have been displaced, roads and houses have been flooded. On 11 January, rain with thunderstorms is forecast, while on 12 January drier conditions are expected over most of Eastern Cape Province. (ECHO, 11 Jan 2022)

Brazil: Floods - Dec 2021

Affected country: Brazil
Glide: FL-2021-000204-BRA

On 7 December 2021, storms caused by the passage of a subtropical cyclone affected several cities in the south of Bahia state in Brazil. The National Centre for Disaster Prevention (Cemaden) recorded rainfall of 450 mm in the Itamaraju municipality and 171 mm in Porto Seguro municipality in Bahia state. According to the latest report of the Superintendence for Protection and Civil Defence of the State of Bahia (Sudec), 12 people died, 267 people were injured, 6,371 were left homeless, and 15,199 were displaced. The population affected by the floods is registered at 220,297 people. Gabo Bravo and Jucuruçu rivers' overflowing led to floods that isolated regions in Bahia and Minas Gerais states, damaging homes and infrastructure (roads and bridges). A total of 21 municipalities are affected, with more serious impact in Jucuruçu, Itagimirim, Porto Seguro and Medeiros Neto municipalities. By 7 December, municipal declarations of emergency were issued. On 10 December, the Federal Government of Brazil declared a state of emergency in at least 50 affected municipalities in Bahia and Minas Gerais. (IFRC, 16 Dec 2021)

163 municipalities reported emergency state due to a dam collapse followed by flooding last December 23rd in Bahia state. The southern part of Bahia state and north of Minas Gerais state are suffering from the consequences of the floods: houses, schools, hospitals and other infrastructures have been destroyed and damaged along with other losses. Total affected population is estimated to be 815,597 with an estimated 101,256 people in need, of those, 28,224 people displaced staying in shelters and 73,032 people being hosted by family and friends; with 2 missing, 520 wounded and 26 deaths.(UNICEF, 7 Jan 2022)

Heavy rainfall continues to cause widespread flooding and landslides across Minas Gerais and Bahia States (south-east Brazil), leading to an increased human impact. In Bahia, the number of fatalities stands at 26, while two people are missing, as reported by the Government of Bahia. About 87,550 persons have been displaced and up to 856,820 individuals have been affected by floods and landslides across 183 municipalities. According to the Civil Protection authorities in Minas Gerais, at least 19 people have died, of which five due to a landslide that occurred in Brumadinho Municipality, that has been heavily affected by the dam collapse on 25 January 2019. Approximately 17,240 persons have been displaced and a state of emergency has been issued for 145 municipalities across Minas Gerais. (ECHO, 12 Jan 2022)

Indonesia: Semeru Volcano - Dec 2021

Affected country: Indonesia
Glide: VO-2021-000194-IDN

Explosive activity at Mt. Semeru escalated on 4 December with an explosion at 14:50 WIB (UTC+7) producing an ash plume up to 15.2 km. As of 08:30 UTC on 5 December, the national disaster management agency, BNPB, is reporting 13 fatalities, with seven people missing and dozens injured. Hundreds took refuge in evacuation halls. Rockfalls and pyroclastic density currents have been reported by the seismic network and visual observations, while seasonal rain and thunderstorms that are forecast for the coming days present an increased risk of rain-triggered lahars. A number of villages have been covered in up to 4 metres of volcanic ash and sand, while housing, roads and bridges have been damaged. The BNPB is supporting in the immediate aftermath with helicopters, heavy machinery, food, shelter and PPE such as face masks. (ECHO, 5 Dec 2021)

According to the Indonesian National Board for Disaster Management (BNPB), the number of fatalities has increased to 15 and 27 people are missing, and 169 have been injured. More than 1,700 people have been displaced in 19 refugee posts, 5,205 people have been affected as well as 2,970 houses across Lumajang Regency and Malang Regency in Java Province. (ECHO, 6 Dec 2021)

On 4 December 2021, the Mount Semeru volcano in Lumajang Regency, East Java Province, had its largest eruption in recent history and produced a hot cloud avalanche with volcanic materials and heavy ashfall. As of 6 December, the Government has reported 34 people killed, 17 people are unaccounted for, and 5,205 people directly affected, including some 3,697 people who are displaced within the regency. The eruption has damaged 2,970 houses and has affected 24 schools and 3,888 students. The Government has prohibited any human activity within one-kilometer radius from the volcano and five kilometers towards south-southeasterly direction. The local Government of Lumajang declared a 30-day emergency response period and has established a command post. OCHA has recorded more than 300 government and non-government institutions that have provided relief assistance to affected people. (OCHA, 6 Dec 2021)

As of 9 December 2021, 3 districts in East Java Province, namely Lumajang district, Malang district and Blitar district have been affected by the hot ash and lava avalanches, causing injuries to 144 people (32 severely injured and 82 mildly injured, 9 people missing, 43 fatalities and displacing 6,586 people to 125 evacuation location). Most of the evacuation centres are established in open spaces while some of the offices of public authorities and community centres are also used as evacuation centres. All the evacuation centres are managed by BPBD. The National Water Company is assigned to provide potable water. Ministry of Public Work and Housing set up emergency latrines, Ministry of Health with the support from local community health centre is providing health services and referral services and field kitchen made available by Ministry of Social Affairs at each of the evacuation centre. Various non-governmental organizations, and community-based organizations also providing services and in-kind donations at the evacuation centres. (IFRC, 17 Dec 2021)

Republic of Congo: Floods - Nov 2021

Affected country: Congo
Glide: FF-2021-000198-COG

In the northern part of the Republic of Congo, heavy rainfall has been observed since September 2021, when the rainy season had just begun. According to the Government's satellite data, the rains of 29 November 2021 caused a significant rise of the water level of the river by 2.4m above the riverbed and led to the total or partial flooding of several villages, neighbourhoods and districts. The departments most affected were Likouala (Bétou, Epéna and Dongou districts), Sangha, Cuvette and Plateaux. In addition to these affected localities in the countryside, several neighbourhoods in the cities of Pointe-Noire and Brazzaville were affected, where several thousand people were forced to leave their homes and lost their livelihoods. In response to this disaster, the Congolese government declared a state of emergency by letter No. 210844/PM/CAB of 29 November 2021. (IFRC, 11 Dec 2021)

Peru: Earthquake - Nov 2021

Affected country: Peru
Glide: EQ-2021-000192-PER

On 28 November, a 7.5-magnitude earthquake struck the Amazonas region in northern Peru. Per the National Civil Defence Institute (INDECI), the 131 km- deep quake affected some 2,800 people across 35 provinces. Areas in Ecuador and Colombia also reported shaking. There are no reports of deaths, nor significant numbers of injuries. Government officials expect the impact to remain relatively low given the sparse population density of the affected areas. Preliminary official reports found that the earthquake destroyed or rendered 127 houses uninhabitable, damaging 535 others, leaving 600 people without their homes. Officials indicate that the impact is well within the Government's ability to respond. INDECI is currently on the ground delivering humanitarian goods and working with regional emergency operations centres. (OCHA, 29 Nov 2021)

On 30 November, the government declared a 60-day emergency in the Regions of Loreto, Amazonas, Lambayeque, Cajamarca, and San Martin. The government launched a multi-sectorial plan to provide an immediate response to the affected families. According to the Civil Defense Institute (INDECI) reports, the earthquake caused damage in the jurisdictions of Luya and Chachapoyas in the Amazonas Region. According to preliminary reports on 2 December, 13,013 people were affected, 255 homes collapsed, 873 were rendered uninhabitable, 2,102 homes & 71 schools were affected, and 17 people were injured. (IFRC, 6 Dec 2021)

As of 12 December 2021, shockwaves were registered in 65 provinces of 12 different departments. The main impact is concentrated in the departments of Amazonas, Cajamarca, Loreto, and San Martin in the north of the country, in the Amazon jungle (COEN 06/12/2021). As at 14 December, the earthquake has caused the death of one person and injured 17. Over 5,100 houses, 518 schools, and 71 hospitals were affected (COEN 14/12/2021; El País 01/12/2021; EFE 29/11/2021). (ACAPS, 12 Dec 2021)

Malawi: Strong Winds and Heavy Rains - Dec 2021

Affected country: Malawi
Glide: SS-2021-000196-MWI

Salima district started getting heavy clouds in the afternoon of the 24th November 2021 which later turned into a very heavy storm that lasted for more than three hours. [...] The storms resurfaced on 25th November and continued to 28th November, accompanied by heavy rains and winds causing serious damages to the four Traditional Authorities of Maganga, Kalonga, Kambwiri and Pemba. No deaths or injuries were reported but the impact of the disaster was unprecedented on the people with large affected areas of houses. At the time of the rapid assessment, 1,188 households were affected with most of them having their roofs brown off. Household items (HHIs), food stocks, WASH learning amenities were also damaged. About 98 households were also reported to be displaced and hosted by families and neighbours within the communities. However, no camps were established.

This crisis started earlier in July, with the consecutive and cumulative impact of the storm and heavy rainfall. For the period July 2021 to 19 November 2021, several districts have been affected by stormy rains and heavy rains including Lilongwe, Mulanje, Mangochi, Chikwawa, Ntcheu, Machinga, Balaka, Zomba, Chiradzulu, Phalombe, Salima, Mzuzu and Blantyre affecting a total of 11,100 households across the districts with 13 registered deaths (seven due to lightning strikes and six because of collapsed walls due to strong winds and stormy rains) and 51 injuries. Some of the affected households are being hosted by the families and neighbours within the communities. (IFRC, 9 Dec 2021)

Iran: Earthquake - Nov 2021

Affected country: Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Glide: EQ-2021-000177-IRN

A 6.4 magnitude earthquake hit Ghale' Ghazi district, near Fin city in Hormozgan province of South Iran on 14 November 2021 at 15:37 local time. So far, 88 aftershocks (the biggest one with 6.2 Richter at 21:20 local time has hit the region). The affected area consists of one city and 137 villages, with a total population of approximately 9,121 households (36,484 people). In addition, affected cities in the surrounding area include Haji Abad, Bandar Abbas, and Roudan, which effects were felt in the Kerman and Fars provinces as well. According to the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), 99 individuals were injured, and one died as a result of the power pole collapse. People in the affected areas are terrified and are expected to stay outside overnight for a week, as aftershocks continue to strike at regular intervals. Slight cracks in the walls of buildings can be seen primarily in the villages near the epicenter, Fin district, Sarzeh, and Rezvan villages. The worst-affected villages are West Gishan, Aab Shirin, Zartoo Bala & Paeen, Roodshoor, Gohareh Chelo, and Chahkal. (IFRC, 26 Nov 2021)