Unidad de Investigación en Emergencia y Desastre (UIED)

Grupo de Investigación en Epidemiología Medioambiental y Salud Pública

29 de noviembre de 2023



Unidad de Investigación en Emergencia y Desastre. Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud. 7ª Planta
Campus del Cristo
33006 Oviedo - España
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Unidad de Investigación en Emergencia y Desastre (UIED)

Desastres activos

Dominican Republic: Floods and Landslides - Nov 2023

Affected country: Dominican Republic
Glide: FL-2023-000236-DOM

Since 17 November, a tropical depression has been bringing heavy rainfall, flooding and landslides to the Dominican Republic. According to the country’s Emergency Operations Centre, the extreme weather has left at least 21 people dead and forced more than 13,000 people to evacuate. At least 15 electricity circuits and 115 aqueducts have been affected, causing disruptions in electricity service for more than 150,000 people and water service for some 1.8 million people. The National Institute of Drinking Water and Sewage and EDESUR are working to restore their respective services in the affected areas.

According to preliminary reports, more than 1,500 homes, 6 roads and 5 bridges have been affected. Some 19 communities remain cut off due to the overflow of rivers. Fourteen provinces (Pedernales, San Juan, Barahona, Azua, San José Ocoa, Bahoruco, Independencia, Elías Piña, San Cristóbal, Peravia, Sánchez Ramírez, El Distrito Nacional, Santo Domingo and Duarte) across the country remain at a red alert level due to the risk of further flooding and landslides. Heavy rainfall is forecast to continue through until 20 November. (OCHA, 20 Nov 2023)

As of 21 November, severe rains and subsequent flooding have left 24 people dead, displaced nearly 18,000 people, affected 3,500 homes, and cut off some 45 communities. About 1.1 million people are still without access to safe water. [...] The UN is also helping the Ministry of Health with the procurement of 50,000 cholera vaccine doses after authorities detected 16 cases, 12 among Haitian migrants. There are concerns that damages to water management systems may aggravate an ongoing dengue outbreak that has led to 12,000 cases so far in 2023. (OCHA, 27 Nov 2023)

According to [information from 22 November], 7,412 homes were affected, 14 partially affected and 22 were destroyed. At least 37,060 people were displaced to safe areas and 55 communities are isolated. A total of 4 shelters were opened, housing 158 people, and 59 water services were affected, of which 55 are inoperable. (PAHO, 28 Nov 2023)

Malaysia: Dengue Outbreak - Nov 2023

Affected country: Malaysia
Glide: EP-2023-000221-MYS

Until October 2023, the number of dengue cases surged by 100.5 per cent, totaling 96,443 cases cumulatively, a signicant increase from the 48,109 cases reported in 2022. In 2022, Malaysia documented roughly 64,078 dengue fever cases nationwide, 26,365 cases in 2021, and 90,304 cases in 2020. Regarding fatalities, a total of 73 deaths from dengue-related complications were recorded by 22 October 2023, compared to 29 deaths during the same period in 2022. In October 2023, daily cases averaged above 300. Currently, there are 73 dengue hotspot localities nationwide, with Selangor state hosting the highest number of hotspots (51), while other states have single-digit counts. Selangor's Petaling and Hulu Langat districts record the most cases, and within Petaling, the top three aected sub-districts are Petaling (5,570), Damansara (4,930), and Sungai Buloh (4,160). (IFRC, 17 Nov 2023)

Tropical Cyclone Mal - Nov 2023

Affected countries: Fiji, Solomon Islands
Glide: TC-2023-000219-FJI

A low-pressure formed north of the Solomon Islands on Friday, 10 November 2023. This weather system developed into tropical disturbance TD02F on Saturday, 11 November 2023, and moved slowly to the east of the Solomon Islands. It is likely to intensify into a Category 3 tropical cyclone by Tuesday, 14 November 2023, or early Wednesday, 15 November 2023. Fiji Met Oce released a tropical cyclone alert on 12 November 2023, informing the projected path expected to approach the Fiji Group from later on Tuesday and continue its journey through the country on 15 November 2023. While the current projected path is over Viti Levu, there is signicant uncertainty at present as the system has not yet fully developed. It may become much clearer when the system becomes a tropical cyclone.

Given this new development, the whole Fiji Group is advised to be on alert for a possible tropical cyclone. Gale to storm force winds is likely over the country from later Tuesday into Wednesday, 14-15 November 2023. These winds can break tree branches, blow unsecured and loose materials, disrupt communication network and power supply due to damaged power lines, damage temporary and weak structures, increase the risk of sea travel for all types of sea crafts, and increase the risk for hazardous breaking waves and coastal inundation of debris along low lying coastal areas, especially during high tides. (IFRC, 15 Nov 2023)

On 15 November, Tropical Cyclone MAL passed Fiji as a category 3 tropical cyclone affecting some 230,000 people. As the eye of the storm was moving over open water, the affected areas sustained minor damage, primarily flooding, some destruction of crops, one landslide and some electricity outages. No deaths or injuries were reported. Small distributions of NFIs and food rations have been provided by government authorities and humanitarian partners. (OCHA, 20 Nov 2023)

Tanzania: Floods - Nov 2023

Affected country: United Republic of Tanzania
Glide: FL-2023-000241-TZA

Heavy rainfall has been affecting northern Tanzania, in particular the Arusha Region, bordering with southern Kenya since late October, causing floods, flash floods and rivers overflow that have resulted casualties and damage. Media report, as of 16 November, ten fatalities, approximately 90 displaced families and a number of damaged houses and bridges across the Arusha District, Arusha Region. The worst affected villages and neighbourhoods in Arusha District are Muriet, Terrat, Elerai, Morombo, Lolovono and Ngarenaro. Over the next 24 hours, more heavy rainfall with locally very heavy rainfall is forecast over most of the country. (ECHO, 16 Nov 2023)

The latest update received from local government, shared on 13 November, reported more than 10,090 people, or 2,018 households suffered floods and landslide are affected with 12 deaths reported, 1,245 houses completely destroyed, and 1,074 latrines collapsed. The figures are likely to increase given the difficult access to most of the affected areas due to water levels. People in these affected areas have been evacuated to earlier mapped out safer areas. However, they have limited access to basic services. (IFRC, 23 Nov 2023)

Heavy rainfall has been affecting northern, western and eastern Tanzania since mid-October due to the so-termed short rainy season that lasts from October to December causing floods, flash floods, rivers overflow and triggering landslides that have resulted in more casualties and widespread damage. The worst affected are the Arusha Region in the north bordering with southern Kenya, the Kigoma and Kagera Regions in the west bordering with Rwanda and Burundi and the Coast Region as well as the Zanzibar Island in the east. Also Dar es Salaam, the main city of the country was severely affected. ECHO, 24 Nov 2023

Nepal: Earthquake - Nov 2023

Affected country: Nepal
Glide: EQ-2023-000214-NPL

On 03 November at 18:02 UTC a 5.6 M earthquake at a depth of 17.9 km struck Nepal, with epicentre in Jajarkot of Karnali province. Several aftershocks have occurred since. Tremors were felt across North India. According to the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Authority (NDRRMA) 140 people have been killed and 140 injured. (ECHO, 04 Nov 2023)

Days after 153 people were killed and several hundred injured, another strong earthquake with 5.6 magnitude struck Nepal on November 6, 2023. On November 3, 2023, a 6.4 magnitude earthquake struck in the Jajarkot and Rukum Districts of Karnali Province in Nepal causing widespread damage. With the completion of the government’s search and rescue operation, the number of deaths stands at 153 (Male: 70, Female: 83) and 338 (Male: 138, Female: 200) injured. The initial findings of the Government’s Initial Rapid Assessment (IRA) launched on 05 November say over 4,000 homes were damaged in the hardest hit districts. Following the initial assessment of the remote damage assessment of available secondary data satellite images USGS data and earthquake risk model, around 1.3 million people might have been exposed and about 0.25 million people may need humanitarian assistance within 72 hours of the earthquake. (UNCT Nepal, 6 Nov 2023)

After the recent 6.4 M earthquake - registered by the Nepalese authorities - that occurred on 3 November and affected the Karnali Province in southern Nepal, the number of casualties and damage is increasing. The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Authority (NDRRMA) reports, as of 6 November, a total of 157 fatalities, according to Save the Children 82 were children and 349 injured people, most of them in Jajarkot and Rukum West districts. Moreover, more than 10,000 people have been displaced, at least 17,740 houses are fully damaged and 17,127 are partially damaged. (ECHO, 7 Nov 2023)

Following 3 November’s 6.4 magnitude earthquake in western Nepal, hundreds of aftershocks have continued intermittently, with the last one reported on 8 November. Search and rescue operations have reportedly concluded and as of 13 November, the number of reported casualties is 154 (male: 70, female: 84) with more than 366 people sustaining injuries. (UNICEF, 13 Nov 2023)

According to the National Emergency Operation Centre (NEOC), by 15 November, approximately 62,000 homes were affected (35,455 partially damaged, 26,557 completely damaged) by the earthquake. Some 250,000 people were affected by the earthquake and require humanitarian assistance. The situation is further compounded as rainwater is posing a significant risk to partially damaged homes that are fragile and face the risk of collapsing. Survivors of the earthquake are also beginning to report health issues related to increasingly cold weather. Public health authorities have warned of outbreaks of communicable and vaccine-preventable diseases in the affected areas as thousands of people are displaced, compromising health and hygiene standards. (UN RC Nepal & UNCT Nepal, 16 Nov 2023)

Approximately 150,000 affected people (including 51,000 children) are in critical need of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services. The earthquake caused significant damage to educational infrastructure, impacting 898 schools (294 fully damaged, 604 partially damaged), along with 89 partially-damaged school toilets. This is expected to disrupt the learning of around 125,0004 school-aged children (49 per cent girls), posing serious risk to their access to education. (UNICEF, 20 Nov 2023)

Ethiopia: Floods - Nov 2023

Affected country: Ethiopia
Glide: FL-2023-000229-ETH

Heavy rainfall has been affecting southern and eastern Ethiopia, in particular the Somali Region, since early November, causing floods, flash floods and the overflow of some rivers, particularly the Genale River, that have resulted in casualties and damage. Media reports, as of 7 November, 20 fatalities and more than 12,000 displaced families across the Somali Region. In addition, several bridges collapsed and some roads have been damaged across the affected area. Over the next 24 hours, more heavy rainfall with locally very heavy rainfall is forecast over the whole Somali Region. (ECHO, 7 Nov 2023)

Colombia: Floods - Oct 2023

Affected country: Colombia
Glide: FL-2023-000232-COL

Since 30 October, there have been heavy and prolonged rains outside the normal range in the Colombian Caribbean, affecting the north of the country, especially in the coastal area, with greater intensity in the departments of La Guajira, Bolivar, Magdalena and Atlántico. According to the National Unit for Risk and Disaster Management (UNGRD), because of the rains, there have been multiple floods, landslides, communication problems and families affected by the effects of the Atmospheric Disturbance (AL97), which is a climatic instability that alters atmospheric conditions and causes strong winds and rainfall ... According to the reports consolidated by the regional offices, around 13,696 families (41,088 people) were affected by the emergency, with damage to their homes, limited access to drinking water and livelihoods affected. Of these, 600 families are in the department of Atlántico, 10,200 families in the department of Bolívar and 2,896 families in the department of Magdalena. (IFRC, 18 Nov 2023)

Paraguay: Floods - Oct 2023

Affected country: Paraguay
Glide: FL-2023-000217-PRY

Between October 30 to November 4, 2023, the regions of Misiones, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, and Alto Paraná in Paraguay experienced a devastating flood caused by heavy rains and the overflowing of the Paraná River. This unprecedented crisis resulted from intense rainfall in the eastern region of the country and the opening of the Yacyretá dam. As a result, the Paraná River, usually measuring 1.50 meters, surged to an astonishing 6.3 meters, leading to widespread inundation in the affected cities. [...] Severe weather events in Paraguay's central and eastern regions have resulted in more than 7,000 families (35,000 people) affected across the country. [...] More than 3,000 families (15,000 people) are in need of immediate humanitarian assistance as they contend with the flooding crisis. (IFRC, 10 Nov 2023)

On 15 November 2023, the Ministry of Health of Paraguay published information on the heavy rains in the country. According to the information, 5 departments and 17 districts were affected by the rising waters caused by the heavy rains in the country. [...] To date, a total of 1,281 medical interventions have been conducted, 19 people were injured and 6 deaths were reported. The Government opened 25 shelters. (PAHO, 17 Nov 2023)

Burundi: Floods and Landslides - Oct 2023

Affected country: Burundi
Glide: FL-2023-000231-BDI

Intense rainfall of 26 to 27 October resulting in strong winds and floods that affected Cibitoke. Other floods were reported earlier but from assessment done by NS on 2 November, Cibitoke remains the most affected so far. 1,590 people are identified as affected in the communes of Buganda, Murwi and Rugombo in Cibitoke. In the province and more precisely in the three communes, following the landslides recorded and floods that impacted Cibitoke, hundreds of households are displaced and have found refuge in host households. [...] From cumulative incident reports, since October 2023, some provinces have started facing heavy rain with strong winds which caused the following damages. Since October, localized floods in Makamba, Ngozi, Cibitoke led to 7 dead, 34 persons injured. Multiple events of strong winds, landslides and flooding from early October have made 4456 affected people and damaged infrastructures. However, the worst affected areas for now remain Cibitoke. (IFRC, 20 Nov 2023)

Tropical Cyclone Tej - Oct 2023

Affected country: Yemen
Glide: TC-2023-000212-YEM

The eye of the cyclonic storm “Tej” made landfall on the eastern Yemeni coast overnight between 23 and 24 October, and moved towards the eastern regions of Hadramawt Governorate. As a result, Socotra and Al Maharah experienced heavy rainfalls and torrential showers, leading to multiple blocked roads in several areas ... According to the emergency operations room in Socotra, over 500 houses were either fully or partially damaged, resulting in loss of personal assets for some households (HHs). According to local partners, 192 HHs were displaced, including 30 HHs in Nawjed area of Hadibu District, and 162 HHs in Qalansiyah wa Abd Al Kuri District, in which some of the displaced individuals are residing in schools or with their relatives ... In Al Maharah Governorate, flooding was reported in Al Ghaydah, Hasswin, Qishn, Sayhut, Al Masilah, Hawf and Shehin districts, with the sea water reaching high levels. Electricity was reportedly cut off in most districts, and telecommunications were disconnected. Electricity is still cut in some areas, and telecommunications is back in Al Ghayda. (OCHA, 25 Oct 2023)

Between 23 and 25 October 2023, IOM Yemen DTM tracked 3,689 households (22,134 individuals) displaced due to Cyclone Tej which made landfall in Al Maharah governorate on 22 October. Most people moved into/within the following governorates and districts: Al Maharah (3,384 HHs) – Haswin (1,815 HHs), Al Ghaydhah (1,123 HHs), Al Masilah (210 HHs) districts. All displacements in the governorate were internal. Hadramawt (305 HHs) – Ar Raydah wa Qussayar (305 HHs) district. All displacements in the governorate were internal. The cyclone brought heavy rains and strong winds, which caused flooding and damage to infrastructure. (IOM, 27 Oct 2023)

The Meteorological Department of the Ministry of Agriculture in Somaliland issued a weather forecast for moderate to heavy rains and flash floods in the state from 24 to 31 October, mainly affecting the western regions of Woqoyi Galbeed and Awdal, and Togdheer region. The officials have warned of heavy rains in Somaliland due to the likely impact of tropical cyclone “Tej”, which has reportedly developed in the Indian Ocean in the past few days and headed to Oman and Yemen. On 26 October, heavy rains in the port town of Berbera flooded many buildings and caused waterlogging in some areas. The Mayor of Berbera warned people in old buildings in the town to move to safer buildings. The Metrological Department has advised people living in low-lying areas and valleys to remain vigilant and called on fishermen to remove their fishing vessels and gear from the sea to avoid losses. The coastal areas in Somaliland are prone to the impact of infrequent cyclones in the Indian Ocean, with the last cyclone 'Sagar’ reported in 2018. At least 52 people reportedly died and widespread destruction was reported, particularly in Lughaya, and Zaylac districts in Awdal Region, due to “Sagar” (OCHA, 28 Oct 2023)

The scale of Tij's impact is evident in the following statistics: Over 15,939 people were displaced; Over 400 homes were destroyed; and Over 5,000 hectares of crops were damaged. [...] Livelihoods and well-being were signicantly impacted in the affected region, and the affected families are facing psychological pressures and are in need of initial psychological support. In addition, the infrastructure as water sources and water networks were affected, and electricity and communications were disrupted. [...] Additionally, there are over 20 camps for displaced people in the region that were also impacted, and particularly vulnerable due to the existing conditions. Moreover, some individuals are living in mud houses, including elderly people, pregnant women, children, and people with special needs. These individuals face unique challenges and are more susceptible to the negative impacts of natural disasters like Cyclone Tij.
(IFRC, 4 Nov 2023)

Hurricane Otis - Oct 2023

Affected country: Mexico
Glide: TC-2023-000209-MEX

A new tropical cyclone named Otis formed over the eastern North Pacific Ocean on 22 October and started moving north toward southern Mexico as a tropical storm, strengthening and becoming a hurricane on 24 October in the evening (UTC). Otis made landfall over the area of the coastal City of Acapulco, central Guerrero State, southern Mexico on 25 October around 6.25 UTC, with maximum sustained winds of 270 km/h (Cat. 5 Hurricane). Otis is forecast to continue northwestward inland over the central-western Guerrero State on 25-26 October, weakening and becoming a tropical storm. (ECHO, 25 Oct 2023)

Otis made landfall over the area of the coastal City of Acapulco, central Guerrero State, southern Mexico on 25 October around 6.25 UTC, with maximum sustained winds of 270 km/h (Cat. 5 Hurricane). According to NOAA, there are no hurricanes on record even close to this intensity for this part of Mexico. After the landfall, Otis continued northwestward over the central-western Guerrero State on 25 October, weakening and becoming a tropical storm. After that, it became a tropical depression and dissipated over eastern Michoacan State on 25 October in the evening (UTC). Very heavy rainfall, strong winds and storm surges associated with the passage of Otis, caused floods and landslides that have resulted in evacuations and severe damage. WHO PAHO and national authorities report, as of 26 October, 34,522 evacuated families in 631 temporary shelters across the affected area. (ECHO, 26 Oct 2023)

The Ministry of Health reports 120 health facilities with some type of damage. Some 80 per cent of hotel infrastructure suffered considerable damage. Assessments of damage to critical infrastructure and access to basic services continue, with 273,844 homes so far reported to be affected to some degree. The Ministry of Welfare has deployed 1,678 evaluators in Acapulco and Coyuca de Benítez, and has so far conducted 20,971 surveys of homes, crops and livestock, as well as small and medium-sized businesses in rural and urban areas. The Government of Guerrero reports 5 temporary shelters with 278 people in Acapulco and 7 temporary shelters with 1,342 people in Coyuca de Benítez. There is still no estimated number of people internally displaced by the hurricane. [...] According to UNICEF, more than 296,000 children and adolescents in the five most affected municipalities are in need of humanitarian assistance and 177,804 students have been affected by the closure of basic education schools in these five municipalities. (OCHA, 01 Nov 2023)

On 31 October 2023, the Government of Mexico published an update on the effects of the passage of Hurricane Otis through the State of Guerrero. There are 58 people reported as missing (52 increase since the 29 October report) and 46 deaths have been reported. Additionally, medical care has been provided for 1,248 instances and there were 293 hospital transfers made. (PAHO, 02 Nov 2023)

As of 5 November, the state government of Guerrero reports 47 people dead (2 more than reported on 31 October) and 48 people still missing. In the municipalities of Acapulco de Juárez and Coyuca de Benítez, 1,488 people are in 12 temporary shelters. UNICEF estimates that 1.07 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance, including 323,000 children. (OCHA, 07 Nov 2023)

According to Mexican authorities, as of 8 November, 47 people were left dead, 32 people are unaccounted for and 3,821 people have been evacuated by commercial airlines. [...] According to preliminary reports, approximately 273,844 homes have been affected, including 50,000 completely destroyed. (OCHA, 11 Nov 2023)

IFRC estimates that a total of 928,252 people were exposed to Hurricane Otis, impacting 848,647 in Acapulco and 79,605 in Coyuca de Benítez. According to the Guerrero State Attorney General's Office, there are 48 people dead and 26 people still missing.

Basic services in Acapulco are being progressively re-established. Two water treatment plants in the municipality of Coyuca de Benítez have cumulatively supplied 115,900 litres of water. [...] Media reports indicate that the Acapulco Chamber of Commerce, Services and Tourism estimates that 63,000 economic units of tourism services in the city will be affected, representing the loss of approximately 180,000 jobs. (OCHA, 16 Nov 2023)

Tropical Cyclone Lola - Oct 2023

Affected countries: Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
Glide: TC-2023-000207-VUT

A new tropical cyclone named LOLA formed over the South Pacific Ocean on 21 October and started moving south toward Vanuatu, strengthening. On the 22nd of October, Tropical Cyclone LOLA made landfall in Solomon Islands, first striking Tikopia Island as a Category 3 cyclone, before increasing in intensity on its way to Vanuatu. Based on the exposure analysis, the population exposed was approx. 22,319 people (4,699 households) with about 1,000 people living in the red zone (>120km/hr winds). Initial reports indicate that more than 100 houses and kitchens were destroyed, and water sources damaged. Four people sustained injuries. (OCHA, 1 Nov 2023)

On 23 October at 5.00 UTC its centre was located over the Ocean approximately 230 km north-east of the Vanua Lava Island (Torba Province, northern Vanuatu) and 385 km north-east of Luganville City (Espiritu Santo Island, Sanma Province, central Vanuatu), with maximum sustained winds up to 140 km/h. On the forecast track, LOLA is expected to continue southwestward and to pass between the Espiritu Santo Island and the Malekula Islands in the afternoon (UTC) of 24 October, with maximum sustained winds of 130-145 km/h. After that, it could reach the southern New Caledonia (France) on 27-28 October, as a tropical storm. (ECHO, 23 Oct 2023)

Severe Tropical Cyclone LOLA (category 3) has moved in a southwest direction and is expected to affect the Islands of Penama, Malampa and Shefa in the next 24 hours. Power and communication networks have been cut, making it difficult to report the impact on those islands at this stage. Vanuatu's National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) has activated offices in six provinces, ready to carry out a rapid assessment after the cyclone. 300 evacuation centres with many located in schools and churches were set up throughout Vanuatu. Port Vila, the capital, is on red alert and all government offices, markets, and banks are closed until further notice. Heavy rainfalls with flash flooding are expected over low-lying areas and areas close to river banks, including coastal flooding. Very rough seas with heavy to phenomenal swells are expected over all Vanuatu waters. On 25 October, Vanuatu requested support from the Union Civil Protection Mechanism (UCPM), consisting of a surveillance flight, shelter kits, tarpaulins. (ECHO, 25 Oct 2023)

Tropical cyclone LOLA passed over Malekula Island, Malampa Province, central Vanuatu on very early in the morning (UTC) of 25 October as a tropical cyclone and continued south-west over the Pacific Ocean. 26 October at 0.00 (UTC) its centre was located over the Ocean approximately 350 km north of the north-eastern New Caledonia (France), with maximum sustained winds of 46 km/h (tropical depression). As of 26 October, media report damage to infrastructure, schools, some destroyed houses and a number of blocked roads across Penama and Malampa Provinces. LOLA is forecast to continue southwestward over the Ocean, further weakening and dissipating in the afternoon (UTC) of 26 October, well off the coast of northern New Caledonia. Over the next 48 hours, very heavy rainfall, strong wind and storm surge are forecast over the whole Vanuatu and New Caledonia. (ECHO, 26 Oct 2023)

Very heavy rainfall, strong winds and storm surges caused by the passage of the tropical cyclone LOLA (with maximum sustained winds up to 222 km/h) on 24-25 October (UTC) over central and northern Vanuatu caused widespread and severe damage. The International Federation of Red Cross (IFRC) and media report that as of 27 October, approximately 10,000 houses have been damaged and a number of schools and bridges destroyed. There has also been damage to the road network across Penama, Malampa, Sanma and Torba Provinces (central-northern Vanuatu). The Pentecost Island (Penama Province) is the worst affected area. (ECHO, 27 Oct 2023)

The Government of Vanuatu has declared a State of Emergency for six months for Torba, Sanma, Penama, Malampa and Shefa Provinces. The estimated affected population in these provinces is approximately 110,750 people, with approximately 50,300 people affected in the priority area 1 (approx. 12,000 households); approx. 46,600 in priority area 2; and approx. 14,000 in priority area 3. (OCHA, 1 Nov 2023)

Tropical cyclone LOLA made landfall on 22 October (UTC) in Solomon Islands [...] According to OCHA, as of 1 November, more than 22,319 people were affected in Solomon Islands and more than 100 buildings have been destroyed and water sources have been damaged. (ECHO, 2 Nov 2023)

According to initial data collected by VRCS, over 46,000 households, representing over 180,000 people, were affected by severe winds, intense rainfall and flooding. An estimated 75 per cent of buildings and houses were destroyed in Priority 1 areas and 50 per cent of buildings and houses were destroyed or damaged in Priority 2 areas. [...] VRCS encountered significant challenges getting to the northern province of Penama as well, and particularly northern and eastern Pentecost, due to damaged or blocked roads and in general response efforts at this stage can only be done by large boats. (IFRC, 10 Nov 2023)

In the immediate aftermath of TC Lola, UNICEF promptly carried out a rapid needs assessment on October 27 in the worst affected provinces of Melampa and Penama. It is estimated that over 28,000 students in these two provinces may face disruptions to their education for the rest of the year, potentially losing over 300 hours of classroom learning. [...] The Education Rapid Assessment findings on November 7 revealed significant damage in 61% of schools in Priority 1 areas, 41% in Priority 2 areas, and 28% in Priority 3 areas.

[...] Tropical Cyclone Lola has not only affected Vanuatu but also impacted the Solomon Islands, specifically in the Temotu province. Tikopia and the Duff Islands have suffered significant damage to education infrastructure, with school buildings and dormitories being particularly affected. Communication with remote areas remains challenging due to the damage to solar and telecommunication towers, leading to reduced services in the affected region. Extensive damage to desalination plants and food crops underscores the urgency to prioritise health, nutrition, and WASH supplies, especially in areas where outbreaks of diarrhoea and dysentery have reportedly claimed four lives on the island of Vanikoro. (UNICEF, 11 Nov 2023)

Niger: Diphtheria Outbreak - Oct 2023

Affected country: Niger
Glide: EP-2023-000223-NER

The first case of diphtheria in Niger was reported on 17 July 2023. Initially reported in 17 health districts spanning seven out of eight regions, the outbreak has now spread to three additional health districts, namely Agadez, Takieta and Tchirozerine, with an upward trend over time. During epidemiological week 42 (ending 22 October 2023), a total of 98 new suspected diphtheria cases, including two deaths (CFR 2.0%), were reported making a 64.3% increase in cases, compared to the 35 cases reported in epidemiological week 41. From 17 July to 23 October 2023, a cumulative total of 1 690 suspected cases were reported in 20 health districts, resulting in 75 deaths (CFR 4.4%). More than 80% (n=1 371) of cases were reported from three health districts, including Matameye (58%, n=973), Magaria (15%, n=260), and Tanout (8%, n=138). Of the 75 recorded deaths, 22.7% (n=17) were reported from Matameye, followed by Zinder (21.3%, n=16), Tanout (12.0%, n=9), Magaria (9.3%, n=7), Aderbissinat (8%, n=6), and Gouree (6.6%, n=5). (WHO, 9 Nov 2023)

On 20 October 2023, the Government of Niger, through the Ministry of Public Health, Population and Social Affairs, declared a diphtheria outbreak. The first case was registered on 17 July 2023. As of 02 November, all eight regions of the country have notified at least 1 case of diphtheria. A total of 1,838 suspected cases of diphtheria, including 91 deaths (lethality: 5%), have been reported. The regions of Zinder (1,578 cases) and Agadez (132 cases) are the most impacted, contributing to 86% and 7% of the total caseload, respectively. 47% of positive cases are among children aged 5 to 14 years, 22% of positive cases are aged 12 to 59 months, 2.5% of positive cases are less than 1 year old and about 28.5% are aged 15 and above. Since the onset of the outbreak, UNICEF has initiated its response in support of and partnership with the Ministry of Public Health and other partners involved in the response. To date, 50,000 children aged 0 to 14 years have already been vaccinated. (UNICEF, 10 Nov 2023)

The Niger Red Cross (CRN) regularly participates in the meeting of the health cluster, where on October 11, 2023, the Ministry alerted partners on the registration of diphtheria cases in the regions of Zinder and Maradi, DREF intervention areas, where 1,440 cases had been recorded including 69 deaths (source: Ministry of Health). A national response plan was immediately developed, and the ministry held an emergency meeting on October 23, 2023, to ask the support of all its partners. Following the meeting, the NS received a formal letter requesting support. (IFRC, 13 Nov 2023)

Kenya: Floods - Oct 2023

Affected country: Kenya
Glide: FL-2023-000216-KEN

Heavy rainfall has been affecting eastern Kenya (in particular Mandera County, the north-easternmost county of the country, bordering with Ethiopia and Somalia) since 2 November, causing floods and rivers overflow (particularly the Dawa River) that have resulted in casualties and damage. Media report, as of 6 November, five fatalities across Mandera County, of which three in the Mandera South Constituency. In addition, media also report more than 1,800 displaced families, nearly 5,000 affected houses and a total of over 4,900 affected people throughout the county. Over the next 72 hours, more heavy rainfall with locally very heavy rainfall is forecast over most of the country, including the already affected Mandera County. (ECHO, 6 Nov 2023)

The third and fourth weeks of October marked the beginning of the rainy season (October – December) characterized by heavy storms that caused flooding, particularly along the Coastal strip, in some areas of the Central Highlands, Southeast lowlands and several areas of Northwest and Northeastern Kenya. Nearly 6,000 households (nearly 36,000 people) have been displaced and 17 people have died, over a thousand livestock and 221 acres of agricultural farmland have been lost as of 5 November, according to initial reports. Cumulatively, nearly 10,230 households (61,380 people) have been affected since the start of the rainy season. These numbers are expected to spike as more rainfall is forecast. (OCHA, 8 Nov 2023)

More than 60 people have died and an estimated 136,025 people (27,205 households) displaced due to flooding in the country as of 19 November, according to authorities. The areas most affected to date are in the northeast including Garissa, Mandera and Wajir. Humanitarian partners are working with the Government to respond to the floods and have so far reached some 950,000 people with food assistance in affected counties. (OCHA, 21 Nov 2023)

Heavy rainfall continues to affect most of Kenya and the wider Horn of Africa region, causing rivers to overflow, floods, flash floods and triggering landslides that have resulted in more casualties and widespread damage. 36 counties are affected (out of 47 throughout the whole Kenya) whereas the worst affected are the eastern and north-eastern ones, bordering with Somalia and Ethiopia, respectively. The Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS), as of 24 November, a total of 71 fatalities, over 45,000 displaced and a total of nearly 95,800 affected families throughout Kenya. In addition, KRCS also reports thousands of destroyed houses and several destroyed and flooded schools and hospitals across the affected counties. ECHO, 27 Nov 2023

Ghana: Floods - Oct 2023

Affected country: Ghana
Glide: FL-2023-000215-GHA

Floods have been affecting south-eastern Ghana since 13 October, caused by the Akosombo Dam overflow in the River Volta, resulting in casualties and damage. According to media, as of 13 October, seven people have been injured and more than 4,000 people have been displaced in the downstream of the Akosombo Dam, in particular in Volta Region. In addition, media report that essential services such as access to water and electricity are disrupted. (ECHO, 16 Oct 2023)

More than 26,000 people have been displaced so far by floods in south-eastern Ghana, according to national authorities. High water levels in the Akosombo reservoir led the Volta River Authority to start a controlled spillage process of the Akosombo and Kpong hydroelectric dams on 15 September 2023, which is still ongoing. The flooding has created a humanitarian challenge downstream in several communities in parts of the Volta, Eastern and Greater Accra regions. (OCHA, 18 Oct 2023)

[...] Initial inter-agency assessment led by NADMO on the consecutive floods in Volta region revealed on 26 October, 35,857 people in total are already affected in the region. Following the situation, the local authorities requested the assistance of Red Cross on 30 October. The WFP observatory latest report of 24 October 2023 had estimated that 465,180 people are leaving in the flooded locations 45,326 hectares of flooded cropland areas. [...] Women, Children and the elderly less likely to cope in situation of stress due to displacements and living in crowded areas in the evacuation centers are the most vulnerable. [...] Patients in health facilities have also been affected and forced to locate to other facilities, thereby increasing the stress on existing facilities. (IFRC, 7 Nov 2023)

Costa Rica: Dengue Outbreak - Oct 2023

Affected country: Costa Rica
Glide: EP-2023-000205-CRI

Up to EW 39 (ending on 30 September) of 2023, a total of 14,403 dengue cases have been officially reported in country. These cases, recorded up to the 39th epidemiological week, show a significant 62% increase compared to the 5,475 cases reported during the same period in 2022. [...] The year 2023 has witnessed a consistent surge in Dengue cases, further straining an already overburdened healthcare system in the country. Yet, beyond the strain on healthcare, Dengue has left a significant economic footprint, as those afflicted often contend with prolonged work incapacity and, in severe instances, necessitate hospitalization, resulting in adverse economic consequences. (IFRC, 20 Oct 2023)

Afghanistan: Earthquakes - Oct 2023

Affected country: Afghanistan
Glide: EQ-2023-000184-AFG

On 7 October 2023 at around 11.00 local time, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck 40km west of Herat City in Herat Province, western Afghanistan. Several aftershocks have occurred since, with the initial quake felt in neighbouring Badghis and Farah provinces. Initial assessments indicate that as many as 100 people have been killed across eight villages in Zindajan Province, Herat Province – Mahal Wardkah (20), Dasht Hows (15), Bahadorzai (14), Zoryan (13), Koshkak (12), Sar Boland (11), Sanjab (8), and Hilalzai (7), with a further 500 people injured. (OCHA, 7 Oct 2023)

To date, 1,023 people are reported to have been killed and 1,663 people injured across eleven villages of Zindajan district, Herat Province, where 100 per cent of homes are estimated to have been completely destroyed. A further 516 people (203 men and 213 women) are reported to be missing from the district. In total, 11,585 people (1,655 families) are assessed to have been affected to date across Zindajan district (1,320 families), and Injil (150 families), Gulran (95 families), Kohsan (60 families) and Kushk (Robat-e-Sagani) districts (30 families). (OCHA, 8 Oct 2023)

Aftershocks continue to be felt two days after a 6.3 magnitude earthquake rocked Herat Province, western Afghanistan. [...] To date, it is estimated 12,110 people (1,730 families) have been affected by the earthquake across five districts of Herat Province — Gulran (95 families), Injil (150 families), Khosan (60 families), Kushk (Robat-e-Sangai) (30 families) and Zindajan (1,395 families). The number of affected households is expected to rise as assessments are continuing in Gulran, Injil, Khosan and Kushk districts. The epicentre of the earthquake – Zindajan district – is the worst-affected area with 1,294 deaths, 1,688 injuries and 100 percent of homes destroyed. A further 485 people (191 men and 294 women) are reported to be missing. (OCHA, 10 Oct 2023)

An aftershock of 5.1 M has been recorded in the affected area (37 km north-northwest of Herat City) on 10 October at 13.30 UTC. Humanitarian partners are providing help for those most affected. (ECHO, 10 Oct 2023)

A new 6.3 M earthquake at a depth of 9 km, followed by two aftershocks of 5 M and 4.1 M, hit Herat Province on 11 October at 00:41 UTC (05:11 local time). The 6.3 M earthquake was located in Zinda Jan District, 27 km northwest of Herat City and at 14 km south-east of the 6.3 M earthquake that occurred on 7 October that caused more than 2,400 fatalities, as of 10 October. According to USGS, approximately 4,000 people were exposed to severe shaking and 1,273 million people were exposed to strong and very strong shaking. Media reports, as of 11 October, 80 injured people that have been hospitalized while rescue operation are still ongoing throughout the region for the 11 October earthquake. (ECHO, 11 Oct 2023)

After the recent 6.3 M earthquake that occurred on 11 October in Herat Province, one person died and 140 people have been injured, all in Herat City and Injil District, as reported by UN OCHA. Several villages across the Districts of Gulran, Injil and Kush sustained damage following the earthquake. In addition, following previous seismic events since 7 October, at least 2,400 people have died, several hundred are reported missing, 1,714 houses have been destroyed, and 11,066 people have been affected across four districts. According to UNITAR-UNOSAT, 15 settlements have been destroyed, three severely affected and 38 moderately affected. (ECHO, 12 Oct 2023)

To date, 1,384 people (759 females and 625 males) are reported to have been killed and 1,853 people injured (1,137 females and 716 males) by the earthquakes. Women and children are overly represented within reported casualties. Assessments completed to date indicate that 3,067 homes have been affected across Zindajan, Injil, Kushk / Rabat-e-Sangai, Ghulan, Herat and Khosan districts, including 2,499 which have been completely destroyed, 363 which have been severely damaged and 250 which have been moderately damaged. More than three quarters of homes destroyed are located in two districts – Zinjadin (1,353) and Injil districts (586). Additionally, 21,300 buildings are estimated to have sustained damage. (OCHA, 13 Oct 2023)

On 15 October, areas north-east of Herat City were hit by a 6.3 magnitude earthquake, the third in a week to strike communities in Herat Province. [...] Two people were reportedly killed and more than 150 people injured. Casualty numbers are not expected to rise significantly as many people are already living in the open out of fear their homes will collapse. Humanitarian facilities, residences and office spaces have sustained damage of varying severity, with engineering assessments a critical priority to differentiate between cosmetic and structural damage, and to allow traumatized residents to return to their homes. To date, 43,395 people (7,165 families) are reported to have been directly affected by the recent earthquakes across Injil (23,053 people), Kushk / Rabat-e-Sangai (8,541 people), Zindajan (7,523 people), Gulran (3,428 people), Herat (717 people) and Kohsan (133 people) districts. Injil is the worst affected district, accounting for 53 per cent of people affected. More than 3,330 homes are also reported to have been completely destroyed – the majority in Zindajan district – 2,137 homes severely damaged, and 1,697 homes moderately damaged. (OCHA, 16 Oct 2023)

A scale-up of response activities is underway to provide humanitarian support to communities in Herat Province, Western Afghanistan in the aftermath of a sequence of shallow, powerful earthquakes with magnitudes exceeding 6.0, accompanied by recurring aftershocks since 7 October 2023. Assessments completed to date indicate that more than 21,500 homes have been completely destroyed (8,429) – mostly in Herat, Injil and Zindajan districts – and severely damaged (17,088) in the earthquakes, affecting around 154,000 people. [...] With temperatures already dropping ahead of the onset of winter, affected communities will also be in need of sustainable solutions to withstand harsh conditions with urgently needed assistance to restore and reconstruct homes and shelters, and reestablish livelihoods. (OCHA, 20 Oct 2023)

Latest assessments show that the first two earthquakes on 7 and 11 October left 1,480 people dead and 1,950 wounded, with available satellite imagery indicating that 513 villages were impacted, and assessments ongoing. To date, nearly 43,400 people across six districts are reported to be directly affected by the recent earthquakes, with Injil and Zindajan districts worst affected. More than half of all earthquake-affected people are in Injil, with the majority of the more than 3,330 destroyed homes assessed to date located in Zindajan. Schools, health facilities, and other infrastructure also impacted by the earthquakes, with 21,300 buildings estimated to have sustained damage. Following the earthquakes, families are living in the open, in makeshift shelters, or in informal settlement sites, leaving them vulnerable to weather, health and other protection hazards. (OCHA, 27 Oct 2023)

The recent series of earthquakes has left a profound impact on a substantial number of families and individuals in the affected districts. A total of 48,347 families, comprising 275,256 people, were directly affected by these seismic events. The 382 villages are situated in the districts of Herat, Injil, Kushk, Zindajan, Gulran, Guzara, Ghoryan, Karukh, and Kohsan in Herat Province. The devastation caused by these earthquakes has been substantial, with 10,002 houses completely destroyed, 20,430 houses with severe damage, and 17,588 houses with moderate damage. As a result, a significant portion of the affected population, approximately 37,139 families, are now forced to live in makeshift tents and open spaces, while 1,268 families reside in informal settlements, and another 8,801 families have resorted to tent shelters as temporary solutions. (OCHA, 8 Nov 2023)

Sri Lanka: Floods and Landslides - Oct 2023

Affected country: Sri Lanka
Glide: FL-2023-000196-LKA

With the intensification of the southwest monsoon, Sri Lanka has experienced heavy rainfall in the Western, Sabaragamuwa, and Southern provinces. Based on the annual rainfall map of Sri Lanka, the southwest monsoon brings rain mainly from May to August to these regions of the island, while the northeast monsoon rains occur in the northern and eastern regions in December and January. This unusual expansion of the southwest monsoon in the country began early in October 2023, but severe rainy conditions were encountered in the aforementioned provinces starting on 6 October 2023, and a red warning was issued to 7 districts on 7 October 2023. However, the Disaster Management Centre stated on October 9, 2023, that a large number of people were displaced owing to floods and landslides in the Gampaha, Matara, and Galle districts. This was the breaking point for SLRCS, which launched a larger response effort and assessed the situation in the three areas mentioned above [1]. The adverse weather conditions for more than a week caused seven deaths, while more than 75,000 people belonging to 20,450 families in 13 districts were affected. (IFRC, 20 Oct 2023)

Since 1-2 November, several Districts of Sri Lanka are experiencing heavy rainfall and strong winds that caused floods, landslides and severe weather-related incidents leading to casualties and damage. According to the National Disaster Relief Centre (NDRSC), at least two people died - one in the Districts of Kurunegala and another in Kandy District- and three others have been injured in severe weather-related incidents. In addition, almost 2,400 people have been affected and 124 houses were damaged by floods, landslides and heavy rain. (ECHO, 8 Nov 2023)

The number of casualties is increasing following heavy rainfall and strong winds that caused floods, landslides and severe weather-related incidents across most parts of the country. According to the National Disaster Relief Centre (NDRSC), six people have died, two in Kandy, two in Kurunegala, one in Mullativu and another in Anuradhapura District, eight have been injured, almost 16,000 have been affected and more than 410 houses have been damaged. (ECHO, 9 Nov 2023)

The humanitarian impact is still increasing following heavy rainfall and strong winds that caused floods, landslides and severe weather-related incidents across most parts of the country since the beginning of November. According to the National Disaster Relief Centre (NDRSC), eight people have died, of whom three in Kurunegala, two in Kandy, one in Puttalam, one in Ratnapura and another in Anuradhapura District, nine have been injured, almost 34,800 have been affected, and almost 960 houses have been damaged. (ECHO, 13 Nov 2023)

The number of casualties is increasing following heavy rainfall and strong winds that caused floods, landslides and severe weather-related incidents across most parts of the country. According to the National Disaster Relief Centre (NDRSC), 19 people have died, 25 have been injured, more than 48,000 have been affected and 1,550 houses have been damaged. (ECHO, 24 Nov 2023)

Somalia: Floods - Oct 2023

Affected country: Somalia
Glide: FL-2023-000190-SOM

Preliminary reports by the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management, South West State and humanitarian partners, estimate that nearly 107,000 people (17,831 families) were affected by heavy rains and flash floods on 4 October, in Baidoa District, Bay Region, South West State of Somalia. Several houses are reportedly inundated, including makeshift shelters hosting over 86,700 internally displaced people in 136 displacement sites in Baidoa City. Critical needs include shelter, food, clean safe water, hygiene and sanitation facilities, and medical assistance. The rains mark the beginning of the Deyr (October to December) rainy season in Somalia, expected to have above-normal rains and increased flooding due to the influence of the El Niño conditions in Somalia. (OCHA, 7 Oct 2023)

The Federal Government of Somalia has declared an emergency in areas where torrential deyr (October to December) rains have triggered floods, according to the Somalia Disaster Management Agency (SoDMA). The heavy rains fueled by an El Nino, have intensified particularly in Puntland, Galmudug, South West, Hirshabelle states and in areas along the Juba river in Jubaland State. Partners estimate that as of 6 November, over 706,100 people have been temporarily affected, with over 113,690 people temporarily displaced from their homes across the country. South West and Jubaland states are the worst affected, with an estimated 268,243 and 268,365 people affected, respectively. In Hirshabelle, at least 145,800 people are reportedly affected, with 11,700 displaced following heavy rains on 5 November. Up to 400 families (2,400 people) are believed to be trapped by floods in Luuq and efforts are ongoing to urgently evacuate them. In Baardheere, local authorities are appealing for urgent support for more than 14,000 families that have been cut off from the main town and are unable to replenish their domestic supplies. (OCHA, 6 Nov 2023)

Nepal: Earthquake - Oct 2023

Affected country: Nepal
Glide: EQ-2023-000182-NPL

A magnitude of 5.3 earthquake hit far western Nepal on 3 October 2023 at 14.40 pm and strong aftershocks occurred at regular intervals during the day which has increased fear among local people. The epicenter of the earthquake was Bajhang district of the Sudurpaschim Province and the tremors were felt in six neighboring districts (Bajura, Achham, Doti, Baitadi, Darchula and Dadeldhura). The continuous aftershocks have forced people to leave houses and live in open spaces. On the 7 October, a 5.3 Richter scale aftershock was felt which created constant fear in the affected people. As of 8 October 2023, 36,250 people of 7,250 families are affected where, 1,567 houses fully destroyed and 5,601 house partially destroyed. Due to the extreme remoteness of the affected areas, the impact of the earthquake is yet to be completely understood. NRCS has already mobilized ERT members who are in the field collecting data and the impact will be clear in the coming days. (IFRC, 13 Oct 2023)

An earthquake of 5.2 M (6.1 M as reported by the authorities of Nepal) at a depth of 25 km occurred in Dhading District, central Nepal, close to the capital Kathmandu, on 22 October at 1:54 UTC (7:39 local time). The epicentre was located approximately 2 km south-west of Darbhung Town, Gorkha District. The National Earthquake Monitoring and Research Center of Nepal (SeismoNepal) recorded at least six aftershocks of magnitude between 4.1 M and 5.1 M. According to the national authorities, one person has been injured in Gorkha District while 24 families have been impacted and more than 20 houses have been damaged in the neighbouring District of Dhading. (ECHO, 26 Oct 2023)